Report of the Government of the Federal Government of Germany on the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325 (“Women, Peace and Security”) 2010
I. Preliminary remarks
The adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 ten years ago – on 31 October 2000 – marks a watershed in the approach to security policy issues in the United Nations. Resolution 1325 represented the first internationally legally binding call for the active involvement of women in all phases of conflict resolution and conflict prevention. The Resolution has since been instrumental in shaping foreign and security policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the European Union, in NATO, as well as in other international organizations.
Resolution 1325 contains a very wide spectrum of demands addressed at a variety of stakeholders: the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the member states of the United Nations, parties involved in armed conflicts, donors and facilitators in conflict settings. Its demands include the increased involvement of women in national and international institutions of conflict management, the appointment of more women as Special Representatives of the United Nations Secretary-General, strengthening the role of women in UN peace operations as well as the integration of gender perspectives in United Nations peacekeeping operations and in reconstruction and reintegration programmes. Resolution 1325 points out the responsibility of parties to a conflict to involve women in peacebuilding processes, to respect the rights of women and girls in conflicts and to take specific measures to prevent sexual violence. All parties in peace and conflict management processes are called upon to take into account the special needs of women and girls in conflict settings and in reconstruction processes, to put an end to impunity and to promote women’s peace initiatives.
Even if we are still a long way from having implemented all the demands of Resolution 1325, significant progress has been made in the decade since its adoption: Today, UN and EU peacekeeping operations must take women’s participation and gender equality into account in all planning and recruiting measures. Three follow-up resolutions of the Security Council on the topic of “Women, Peace and Security” (1820, 1888, 1889) emphasize the significance attached to this set of issues. Resolutions 1820 and 1888 address in particular the protection from sexual violence and the ending of impunity, while Resolution 1889 focuses on the role of women in post-conflict peacebuilding processes. During the anniversary year 2010, numerous events in Germany, at EU level and in the United Nations called attention not only to the significance of the issue, but also to the deficits that have yet to be addressed.
The anniversary year of Resolution 1325 also coincides with a series of developments that will be of significance for the area of “Women, Peace and Security”: In 2010, the United Nations decided to establish a new unit for questions of gender equality, which is to be operative as of early 2011. The issue of women, peace and security also plays a central role in the negotiations on the reform of peacekeeping operations and post-conflict peacebuilding measures. The 2010 assessment of the implementation of the decisions of the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women (“Peking+15”) again emphasized the role of women in security policy, post-conflict peacebuilding and sustainable development.
Resolution 1325 has received considerable attention in Germany as well. To mark the occasion of International Women’s day in March 2010, the German Bundestag called upon the Federal Government to advance the implementation of Resolution 1325 by bolstering inter-ministerial cooperation while taking into consideration international experiences with the implementation of the Resolution, and to take advantage of the occasion of the ten-year anniversary of Resolution 1325 to raise awareness of the resolution’s contents and its significance among the general public.
Against this background, this Third Report of the Federal Government  provides an overview of the Federal Government’s measures taken in implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325 for the time period of July 2007 to July 2010.
A description of German activities the implementation of Resolution 1325 must always take into consideration the fact that many demands of Resolution 1325 (as well as its follow-up Resolutions 1820, 1888, 1889) are directed primarily at states or parties involved in a conflict (e.g. OP 8, OP 9, OP 10, OP 12). Here, the Federal Government can exercise influence through bilateral contacts, through dialogue within the framework of the EU or through multilateral frameworks, for example within the United Nations. Some of the demands are also directed at states who themselves are not party to a conflict (OP 1, OP 6, OP 7, OP 11); in these areas, Germany can become active itself. As to other demands, Germany can realize or promote them through cooperation in and collaboration with the European Union, the United Nations and other international organizations (such as those demands regarding the constitution and organization of peacekeeping operations) or in cooperation with partner countries (e.g. OP 4, OP 5, OP 8, OP 11, OP13).
In order to give a clearer view of what could and should be done on the national and multinational levels, this third report makes use of a new structure which shows German involvement nationally and bilaterally, within the European Union, the United Nations and other international organizations.
Numerous federal ministries are involved in the implementation of Resolution 1325 in these different areas of action. Coordination takes place within the framework of an Inter-Ministerial Working Group. Objectives for the future include constant exchange and closer cooperation, as well as a more intensive dialogue with civil society. The Federal Government’s policies must be in line with strategies that were laid out in the EU and the UN, for example, with German participation. In 2010, the United Nations Security Council and the European Union decided on indicators for the implementation of Resolution 1325. Thus, concrete implementation targets were set that are meant to serve as guidelines for organizations and member states and to allow verification of implementation. These indicators provide the framework that should also guide Germany’s efforts towards implementation.
Resolution 1325 emphasizes the importance of civil society in the implementation of the Resolution’s targets. The Federal Government shares this view and is therefore engaged in a wide-ranging dialogue with civil society, in particular with women’s organizations, on Resolution 1325’s core issues. This dialogue is taking place in various forums, for example in the conference series “Forum on Global Issues”, put on by the Federal Foreign Office, or in the discussion group “Women and Armed Conflict”, organized by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). In the context of international conferences and committee meetings, such as the annual meeting of the Commission on the Status of Women, an exchange of information and opinions is taking place between government representatives and civil society, which is to be expanded in the future.
This report identifies – with a scope extending beyond the description of measures during the reporting period – focal points for the Federal Government’s future engagement, and proposes medium-range objectives and indicators for implementation in appropriate fields of action.
II. National implementation in and by Germany: Serving as a model, creating structures, providing active support.
II.1. The implementation of Resolution 1325 as an inter-departmental task
Since the last report on measures towards the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2007, the relevant federal ministries have taken important steps to further anchor and implement the Resolution on various levels. Through public relations measures, decision-makers are increasingly sensitized to the issue of women, peace and security. With the first Development Policy Action Plan on Gender (see chapter III.1), the Federal Government is making a contribution to the implementation of Resolution 1325.
In 2009, in order to achieve a more coherent implementation of Resolution 1325, the previous cooperation between ministries was consolidated and intensified through an inter-ministerial working group on Resolution 1325. Participants in this working group are: the Federal Foreign Office (AA), the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ), the Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg), the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Federal Ministry of Justice (BMJ) and the Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI). The core task of the working group is the coordination of the ministries in the relevant areas of implementation of Resolution 1325 as well as networking with other inter-departmental task forces active in related areas, for example the Civilian Crisis Prevention Task Force or the Afghanistan Inter-ministerial Steering Group. An additional key task of the group is to foster an exchange with civil society and with partner states on strategies for the implementation of Resolution 1325 and on “best practices”. A further objective of the group is developing joint public relations measures.
In a workshop discussion organized by the BMFSFJ on 9 September 2009 on the topic of “Women and Armed Conflict”, members of the inter-ministerial working group and representatives of civil society organizations held discussions with representatives of the Dutch Government. In November 2009 and August 2010, at the invitation of the Federal Foreign Office, representatives of different ministries met with women’s organizations for a discussion on the implementation of Resolution 1325 and on the issue of gender equality in the United Nations.
The focus on women’s particular potential for peace constitutes one of the cornerstones of the “Civilian Crisis Prevention, Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Peace-building Action Plan” and of the work of the inter-departmental Civilian Crisis Prevention Task Force. The Federal Government reports on the implementation of the Civilian Crisis Prevention Action Plan every two years (First Implementation Report from 31 May 2006 (Bundestag printed paper 15/5438); Second Implementation Report from 19 June 2008 (Bundestag printed paper 16/100 34); Third Implementation Report from 25 June 2010 (Bundestag printed paper 17/2300)).
Public relations work
Through a targeted public relations strategy, the Federal Government intends to draw attention to the topic of women, peace and security among decision-makers and multipliers in Germany. This purpose is served by regular publications (e.g. “Masculinity and Civil Wars in Africa – New Approaches to Overcoming Sexual Violence in War”, GTZ/BMZ/, Dr. Rita Schäfer, 2009; “Rape in War” – an ongoing research project, BICC 2009). Two films commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) show the role of women for development and security:
1. “Gender Equality as a Key Factor for Sustainable Development”: This film focuses on the topics of women in conflicts and violence against women.
2. “For Tomorrow’s Life – Development for Peace and Security”: This film deals with the role of women in conflicts, both as victims and as stakeholders in post-conflict reconstruction efforts.
On 5 March 2009, the BMZ held a high level conference in Berlin entitled “Violence against women in conflicts – How can development policy help?” At the conference, recommendations for action for the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1820 were developed and documented. In March 2010, the BMZ established a round table meeting with civil society on the topic of “Women in armed conflicts”, and it regularly organizes expert discussions in which civil society stakeholders take part. On 22 February 2010, an expert forum took place dealing with the topic of “Strengthening the rights of victims of sexual violence and displacement – using approaches from Colombia for German development cooperation”.
Within the series “Forum on Global Issues” on 23 March 2010, the Federal Foreign Office organized a panel discussion on the topic “Women as stakeholders in peace processes”. In several rounds of discussions, experts including members of the United Nations and military personnel discussed with representatives of non-governmental organizations and an audience made up of NGOs, Members of Parliament, scientists and government representatives about ways to strengthen the active role of women in peace processes.
In March 2010, an international conference to mark the 10th anniversary of the adoption of Resolution 1325 was hosted by OWEN – Mobile Akademie für Geschlechterdemokratie und Friedensförderung e.V. (Mobile Academy for Gender Democracy and Peacebuilding), with the support and participation of the BMFSFJ. This event offered participants from local and foreign non-governmental organizations, foundations, international organizations (including UNIFEM, UN DPKO) and governmental bodies (including BMFSFJ, AA, ZIF, ifa, zivik) the opportunity to share and analyse different experiences in the implementation of Resolution 1325, in particular regarding the needs of local stakeholders, as well as the chance to identify best practice examples and possibilities for improvement.
Civil society engagement was bolstered by the support and participation of the BMFSFJ, for example in the International Conference on Gender, Peace and Security (Women’s Academy Munich – Frauenakademie München e.V.). This conference highlighted the role that gender plays in international relations, and examined the contributions that women’s NGOs can make towards peaceful conflict resolution.
II.2. National gender equality measures
OP 1 of Resolution 1325 calls for the participation of women in national, regional and international institutions and in mechanisms for the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts. This demand is directed not only at developing countries and states involved in conflicts, but at all United Nations member states. Industrialized countries not party to a conflict can also further the cause of the Resolution in various areas, by increasing the proportion of women in their own domestic or international workforce. One example is the proportion of female Members of Parliament, which plays a major role as a benchmark in the context of the UN and is a significant factor in the building of international networks of female parliamentarians. According to the final official results of the 2009 Bundestag elections, the proportion of women in the German Bundestag is at 32.9%, i.e. besides the 418 men there are 204 female Members of Parliament.
Further examples are the significance of women’s participation in international delegations and conferences, or the involvement of women in international institutions engaged in conflict management.
The Federal Act on Gender Equality of 2001 promotes the equality of women in public service and strengthens the rights of the Gender Equality Representatives. In addition, gender equality is advanced through the General Equal Treatment Act (Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz – AGG) of 14 August 2006. The law’s objective is to prevent or eliminate disadvantages on, inter alia, grounds of gender.
The task of the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency is to work towards preventing or eliminating disadvantages on grounds of ethnic background or skin colour, gender, religion or philosophical creed, disability, age or sexual orientation. The fight against the discrimination of women is therefore an issue of considerable importance for the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency. Gender as an attribute plays a particular role in the work of the Agency, especially in combination with other attributes (multiple discrimination) mentioned in the AGG.
The Act on the Appointment and Secondment of Women and Men to Bodies within the Remit of the Federation achieve an equal balance of women and men in administrative bodies, for example on management and advisory boards, commissions, committees, administrative and supervisory boards, provided that their members are subject to the Federal Government’s right of secondment and appointment.
On 26 September 2007, the Federal Cabinet adopted the second Action Plan to Combat Violence Against Women, which builds upon the findings of Action Plan I (1999). Action Plan II contains over 130 individual measures for respective departments to implement under their own responsibility. The Action Plan also takes steps for the protection of women and girls against gender-specific violence, in particular against rape and other forms of sexual abuse, as well as against violence in armed conflict situations.
Support measures for female migrants in Germany, for example through the promotion of integration, training and the strengthening of their self-organization, can help them exercise a more long-term influence on post-conflict peacebuilding and reconstruction processes in their countries of origin. Since so far there is little information available on female migrants’ self-organization and their respective needs, the BMFSFJ has commissioned a study on the self-organization of female migrants that takes stock of existing structures and identifies starting points for support measures.
II.3. Participation of women in political institutions and peacebuilding mechanisms
II.3.1. Proportion of women and German personnel in European and international organizations
At international level as well, the Federal Government is committed to promoting greater participation of women in institutions and mechanisms for the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts. Although it is on the increase, the proportion of women among the German personnel of international organizations is still too low. The situation varies, however, from one organization to the next.
a) Proportion of women and German personnel in the United Nations
The proportion of women among the German staff in the Secretariat of the United Nations increased from 40.5% in 2006 to 50.4% in 2009. In comparison, this number is significantly higher than the proportion of women in the UN Secretariat as a whole (only 33.6% at the end of 2009). At higher service level as well, the proportion of women among German personnel was considerable higher (48.2%) than that of the UN Secretariat as a whole (40.4%).
The proportion of women at higher service level has both direct and longer term implications for the staffing of senior positions. 26% of German staff at director level in the United Nations and in its subsidiary organizations and specialized agencies are women. At USG level, Germany is represented in the UN Secretariat in New York with one woman only.
In general it can be assumed that, in particular for leadership and other high level positions, German prospects for success will increase as Germany puts forward female applicants or candidates.
The objective of the Federal Government’s international personnel policy is to significantly increase the proportion of women in general and at all levels. For prominent positions, however, due to the special circumstances within international organizations, this goal can only be achieved in the medium to long term. For this reason, the Federal Government is devoting considerable efforts to promoting the training of junior staff. In the extremely successful training programme “Junior Professional Officer”, 91 out of a total of 152 Junior Professional Officers (59.8%) at the end of 2009 were women. For the positions and vacancies currently filled, the proportion of women reached 60%.
b) Proportion of women and German personnel in the bodies of the European Union
All EU bodies are committed to gender justice. However, since recruitment in the EU, in contrast to most international organizations, is based on a civil service career model, changes in the practice of hiring and filling positions will only have an effect in the medium term.
The number of German women in senior positions in the European Commission has increased by over 70% compared to the previous year: Whereas on 1 January 2009, there were only 17 German women holding senior positions with an AD13-AD16 pay grade, on 1 June 2010 there were 29 – in contrast, however, to 128 German men in senior positions. Among all of those employed at higher service level (AD5-AD16), the proportion of women among German staff increased marginally from 30.06% (1 January 2009) to 30.85% (1 June 2010).
General Secretariat of the Council
On 1 January 2010, 224 of 658 employees at higher service level at the General Secretariat of the Council were women. This corresponds to a percentage of 34.04%. The proportion of women in the German staff was 37.14%.
From 1 January 2009 to 1 January 2010, the proportion of women in the German staff employed at higher service level in the European Parliament increased slightly, from 32.98% to 34.38%, while the proportion of women among all AD-level civil servants stagnated at 37.50%. In total, on 1 January 2010, 33 of 96 AD-level civil servants were women.
European External Action Service
On 29 October 2010, High Representative Catherine Ashton filled both positions of Deputy Secretary-General of the EEAS, one of them with the German diplomat Helga Schmid. This puts a German woman in a very prominent position at the senior level of the EEAS. 
c) Proportion of women and German personnel in the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
Germany provides 64 employees in total who work at the OSCE (6% of the overall OSCE personnel). Of these, 44% are women, which is well above the OSCE average of 38% (all numbers as of June 2010). Female staff members from Germany hold a number of positions within the OSCE that have considerable influence on gender issues in activities relating to conflict prevention and post-conflict peacebuilding. These positions include:
· Head of Gender Section in the OSCE Secretariat
· Deputy Head of OSCE Centre in Astana
· Deputy Head of OSCE Presence in Albania (until May 2010)
· Head of OSCE Office in Livno, Bosnia and Herzegovina
· Head of Democratization Department, OSCE Mission to Serbia
· Experts in the fields of human rights, confidence building, gender equality issues etc.
d) Proportion of women and German personnel in the Council of Europe
Although the proportion of German women employed at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in 2009 was a relatively high 50.88%, this number is still below the proportion of women in the overall staff of the Council of Europe (66.32%). While the overall proportion of women employed at higher service level at the Council of Europe has remained constant at nearly 49% since 2008, the proportion of German women has decreased slightly from 35.71% (2008) to 32.39% (2009).
Focus: Center for International Peace Operations
The Center for International Peace Operations (Zentrum für Internationale Friedenseinsätze –ZIF) was established in 2002 by the Federal Government and the German Bundestag with the aim of enhancing civilian capacities for international peace operations. The increasing complexity of peace operations means that their success is dependent upon the rapid deployment of professional personnel. ZIF’s core mandate is the training, recruitment and support of civilian personnel as well as the development of analyses and concepts regarding post-conflict peacebuilding, peacekeeping operations and civilian conflict management. The centre cooperates closely with the Federal Foreign Office and is in charge of missions conducted in particular by the United Nations, the European Union and the OSCE.
When the Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF) took over the Foreign Office’s staff pool for peace operations and election observation missions in 2002, the proportion of women was below 30%. By 2010, the ZIF was able to increase the proportion to nearly 41%. There is also a positive trend in terms of active personnel: While the overall proportion of women among the international civilian staff of peace operations remains at 30%, at the start of 2010 the proportion of women among German civilian staff was nearly 39%.
The proportion of women participating in the ZIF training courses for civilian staff also steadily increased. Of the more than 1000 German participants in ZIF training courses between 2002 and early 2010, 47% were women.
All of this is rooted in the growing awareness that a diversification of the staff pool, training programmes and missions on the ground constitutes a significant advantage for everyone involved, in every respect. In the ZIF’s training programmes as well, the implementation of Resolution 1325 is seen as a cross-sectoral task, and trainers of individual course modules are encouraged to put this into practice accordingly. In addition, there are specific training modules on gender within the individual courses, which are offered as needed.
Focus: Current figures:
German civilian staff in peace operations:
OSCE  (as of June 2010): 64 persons, of which 28 are women (44%)
UN (as of March 2010): 77 persons, of which 33 are women (43%)
EU (including ICO/Kosovo; as of June 2010): 111 persons, of which 37 are women (33%)
Total: 251, of which 97 are women (39%)
Election observation missions 2009:
OSCE 2009: 186 German election observers in total, of which 73 are women (40%).
EU 2009: 38 German election observers in total, of which 18 are women (47%).
Training courses 2009: 135 German participants, 66 women (49%).
II.3.2. Proportion of women in selected areas of the Federal Government
Of particular interest in terms of OP 1 of the Resolution is the personnel structure of the Federal Foreign Office. The proportion of women employed at the Federal Foreign Office influences to what extent women can contribute to the peace and security aspects of Germany’s foreign policy, to what extent they take part in delegations and negotiations and to what extent women in senior positions are active at embassies and multilateral representations in conflict countries or in multilateral conflict management.
In its second Equal Opportunities Plan (2008-2011), developed together with the Gender Equality Representative and the Staff Council, the Federal Foreign Office set out concrete objectives regarding the proportion of women in senior positions. As evidenced by the interim review of 31 December 2009, it has achieved a significant measure of success. Currently, in the head office of the Federal Foreign Office, women make up 17.6% of senior staff (heads of department, commissioners, heads of division). Since 2009, for the first time in the history of the Federal Foreign Office, the heads of two departments, the Legal Directorate-General and one of the Political Directorate-Generals, are headed by women, as is the Foreign Service Academy, which is in charge of the education and further training of the diplomatic corps. Other key strategic and policy divisions are headed by women. The number of female heads of mission abroad has increased from 11 at the end of 2007 to 21 at the end of 2010, bringing the percentage of missions abroad headed by women to 10%.
The overall proportion of women is 25.9% at higher service level, 52.5% at higher intermediate service level and 35.8% at intermediate service level. Over the past ten years in particular, the Federal Foreign Office has hired significantly more women than had previously been the case. In the selection process for the hiring year 2010 for higher service positions, for example, over 45% of those selected were women. As a result, for the age group of 39 and younger, the proportion of women is now over 40% in the higher service as well. For the age group of 50 to 59-year-olds, by contrast, the proportion of women is less than 15%. For this reason, under the Equal Opportunities Plan, women will receive disproportionately greater consideration for senior positions than would be the case based solely on their numbers at the respective pay grade. In the higher service career track, recruitment figures for women have consistently been over 50% in the past years.
The Federal Foreign Office is committed to increasing the number of female regular staff in senior positions in international organizations. At the end of 2009, 6 of a total of 25 of the Federal Foreign Office’s regular staff members in international organizations were women, one of whom at a level comparable to B6.
Other ministries of the Federal Government also take part in international negotiations and staff positions at embassies. On 31 December 2009, the proportion of women occupying positions of economic cooperation officers and development cooperation counsellors, which are relevant to development policy, was 43.5%. (Of 46 economic cooperation and development cooperation positions, 20 were occupied by women.)
II.3.3. Proportion of women in the Bundeswehr and police
Since the opening of all career tracks of the Bundeswehr (Federal Armed Forces) to women in 2001, the number of female soldiers in the armed forces has more than tripled. Their proportion is currently at 9.2% of all career and fixed-term volunteer soldiers. Presently, approximately 16,950 women are serving as soldiers in the armed forces.
The Federal Government expects the proportion of women in the Bundeswehr personnel to continue to rise in the future, as a military career continues to have a considerable appeal for young women.
However, the targets for numbers of women in the armed forces set out in the Act on Equality of Soldiers in the Bundeswehr (Soldatinnen- und Soldatengleichstellungsgesetz – SGleiG –50% in the Medical Service, 15% for all other career tracks – will not yet be attainable in the foreseeable future.
Of the troops deployed in operations and equivalent missions, 1194 were female Bundeswehr personnel (servicewomen and civilian Bundeswehr personnel) in 2007, 1101 in 2008, 1477 in 2009 and 959 in 2010 to date (as of 12 July 2010). Regarding the total strength of deployed personnel, this corresponds to a proportion of 4.9% for 2007, 4.8% for 2008, 5.7% for 2009 and (also as of 12 July 2010) 5.5% for 2010.
In the police forces, there are currently 17 female police officers (Polizeivollzugsbeamte – PVB) deployed in mandated operations (as of 5 October 2010). 75 police officers are deployed in the EU mission in Kosovo (EULEX), 6 of whom are women (8%); in the EU mission in Georgia (EUMM), 2 of the 18 police officers deployed are women (11%). In the European police mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL), 2 of 23 police officers currently serving are women (9%). Additionally, since 2009, the German Karin Müller has been Deputy Head of the EUPOL Mission. In the EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM MD/UA), the proportion of female police officers is 30% (3 of 10 police officers). The EUPM BiH mission is currently composed of a total of 10 police officers from the Federation and the Länder, of which 2 are women (20%). In the EUBAM Rafah mission, there is one female police officer deployed, while one male and one female police officer are deployed in the EU mission in Palestine (EUPOLCOPS).
II.4. National education and training activities
The Federal Government is particularly committed to integrating a gender perspective in education and training activities for military personnel and the police forces. This applies not only to individual further training measures for members of the Bundeswehr and police forces, but also to efforts to build up institutional capacities, with the aim of enhancing the efficiency of armed forces and police operations in conflict regions.
One concrete example of the Federal Government’s commitment to integrating gender-specific measures in the area of crisis prevention and conflict management is the training of personnel for UN missions. Gender aspects are systematically taken into account in the design of training modules. This includes considering the role of women in conflict resolution, an aspect which is of particular importance for personnel being deployed to field missions.
Gender issues are playing an increasingly important role in the training courses of the Bundeswehr. During their general career training, in particular in the area of leadership, soldiers are taught about the demands of Resolution 1325 and sensitized to the relevant issues, both on the topic of “Women serving in the armed forces” as well as “The status of women in society”. Specialized courses deal with the basic and further training of gender equality representatives and equal opportunity ombudswomen. The posting of Resolution 1325 on the Bundeswehr Intranet serves to further promulgate the Resolution within the armed forces, independent of course curriculum.
The courses “Core leadership training for international operations” and “Deployment and the law” at the Bundeswehr’s Leadership Development and Civic Education Centre (Zentrum Innere Führung der Bundeswehr) deal with measures to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse, the rights and special needs of women and protective measures within the context of the specific mandates in peace operations. The existing situation of women in the respective country of deployment is also examined in the context of country-specific pre-deployment training. In addition, participants are instructed on the causes and background of the given conflict, on the social, political and cultural situation on the ground as well as on local gender relations.
During their basic preparation for international peace operations, police officers are also sensitized to the topic of women and human rights. The same is true for measures to promote medical awareness in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
II.5. Law enforcement: Prosecution of those responsible for violence against women in conflicts, genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes
Resolution 1325 emphasizes the responsibility of all states to put an end to impunity and to prosecute those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, including those relating to sexual and other violence against women and girls. The Code of Crimes Against International Law (CCAIL), which came into force in 2002, provides the legal basis in Germany for the protection from genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, in particular those crimes associated with violence against girls and women, both sexual and otherwise. The crimes identified in the CCAIL are subject to worldwide prosecution, even if they were committed abroad.
In the CCAIL, crimes against the sexual self-determination and the physical integrity of women and children have been included in the catalogue of crimes against humanity – a fact which underscores the fundamental significance of this issue. Provided they are committed in the context of a widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population, these crimes include, inter alia, human trafficking, especially when it involves women or children, sexual assault or rape of a person, forced prostitution, deprivation of the ability to procreate, imprisonment of a pregnant woman with the intent to influence the ethnic constitution of a people and the persecution of an identifiable group or community by depriving them of or significantly restricting basic human rights on the grounds of gender. Moreover, any person who intends to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial, religious or ethnic group by imposing measures to prevent births within the group, or who forcibly transfers a child of the group to another can be prosecuted for genocide according to the statutes of the CCAIL.
Responsibility for the prosecution of crimes according to the Code of Crimes Against International Law lies with the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice. This means that these sensitive matters are, commensurate with their importance, placed in the hands of the highest German law enforcement agency. The Public Prosecutor General, acting within this area of jurisdiction and in accordance with actual means and possibilities, prosecutes the responsible parties for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The prosecution of those crimes involving sexual or other violence against women or girls carries particular weight.
At present, the Public Prosecutor General is investigating the cases of three persons accused of crimes in conjunction with sexual violence: On 17 November 2009, the Federal Public Prosecution Office ordered the arrest of two Rwandan nationals. The accused are strongly suspected of having committed crimes against humanity and war crimes as members of the foreign terrorist organization “Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda” (FDLR); one of the accused is also suspected of having been the ringleader of the terrorist organization.
Moreover, Germany provides legal assistance, in accordance with international treaties and domestic law, for criminal proceedings undertaken by foreign authorities and international courts of justice against those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Since May 2007, representatives of the agencies responsible for prosecuting crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes have been meeting on an annual basis. The Public Prosecutor General has initiated proceedings involving comprehensive legal cooperation to prosecute individuals responsible for genocide in Rwanda. The Federal Government supports the work of the international courts of justice, both in specific cases and in general terms. In particular, the courts of justice prosecute crimes against women and girls, for example mass rape and forced marriages.
III. Germany as bilateral partner and donor
III.1. The Development Policy Action Plan on Gender
Since the 1990s, the issue of equal rights for women and men has been a basic principle of German development policy and cooperation. The Development Policy Action Plan on Gender (2009-2012) serves as a guideline for the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as for the German implementing agencies and provides a basis for discussion for partners, civil society organizations, NGOs as well as scientific research institutions. It focuses on four thematic areas, one of which is entitled “Women in armed conflicts and their role in conflict management”. The Federal Government thereby underscores its engagement for the issue of women, peace and security (OPs 1, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13). The Action Plan contains recommendations for measures in partner countries (e.g. providing assistance for victims of sexual violence and access to justice for women) as well as at international and national level (e.g. increasing cooperation with relevant federal ministries, facilitating regular exchange with civil society).
III.2. Support for projects and programmes
The Federal Government is actively involved, in a wide range of areas around the world, in projects that promote the participation of women, strengthen women’s role in society and protect women’s rights in partner countries. A broad approach is required, entailing measures in the areas of education, security sector reform, protection of women against violence as well as capacity-building for women’s organizations, and in areas such as providing assistance for business start-ups for women or gender equality advisory services. The target groups for such measures are as diverse as the measures themselves; they are directed at the women themselves, at decision-makers, at multipliers and at traditional leaders, but also at men and boys. The following selection of projects that were supported during the reporting period provides an overview of the focal areas of the Federal Government as a bilateral partner and an international donor. More detailed information on specific projects is supplied in Appendix 1 (What has Germany done specifically? Selected examples of projects).
Regarding funding applications and the implementation of all projects by implementing agencies and NGOs – not only projects directly relating to gender equality – the Federal Government adheres to the principles of political independence and equal treatment of men and women. Gender-specific needs must be taken into account in a development policy context, in accordance with the guidelines of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (gender policy marker). In particular, each applicant must answer the following relevant questions:
· What is the ratio/number of men and women in the target group?
· How does the selection of beneficiaries take place?
· Are there particular measures that address gender-specific circumstances (e.g. special assistance for single mothers)?
· Does the project have direct gender-specific implications?
· What is the ratio of women to men among the staff of the implementing agency?
The Federal Government also provides support for activities of church organizations and political foundations.
Germany’s dedicated commitment to supporting women’s rights is rooted in particular in the understanding that the extent to which women’s rights are realized is directly linked to the readiness to apply peaceful conflict resolution mechanisms. The Federal Government has commissioned measures to promote women’s rights on nearly every continent – for example in Mauritania, Nigeria, Egypt, Bangladesh, Morocco, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Cambodia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Colombia.
The Federal Government also provides support to specific projects that advance the implementation of Resolution 1325 (see Appendix 1). Here a differentiation must be made between projects with an explicit focus on empowering women in conflict and post-conflict settings, which have a direct effect on gender equality, and those programmes and measures taking place in the context of a conflict, which put the focus on gender-specific aspects into practice as a cross-sectoral task in terms of gender mainstreaming; the latter have an indirect effect on gender equality.
The Federal Government supports training and education measures on topics that include women’s rights, political participation of women and the adoption of gender perspectives in development policy programmes. The target groups for these measures include individuals in partner countries as well as civil society organizations, members of government agencies and trainers working for relevant organizations in partner countries.
As bilateral donor, the Federal Government carries out security sector reform measures in conflict countries. Instrumental for these programmes are the OECD guidelines laid out in the Handbook on Security System Reform of the OECD Development Assistance Committee. Germany has helped anchor a gender perspective in these guidelines by supporting – with relevant practical examples – the development of a new chapter in the revised version of the handbook that deals with the incorporation of gender perspectives in security sector reform (Section 9, 2009, on “Integrating Gender Awareness and Equality”).
Numerous measures that contribute to the implementation of Resolution 1325 and receive German support are of benefit to female refugees and migrants, particularly in conflict regions. However, within Germany, too, support measures for female migrants, such as the promotion of integration, training and self-organization can help them exercise a more long‑term influence on post-conflict peacebuilding and reconstruction processes in their countries of origin. Since so far there is little information available on female migrants’ self-organization and their respective needs, the BMFSFJ has commissioned a study on the self-organization of female migrants that takes stock of existing structures and identifies starting points for support measures.
III.2.1. Projects aimed at participation/civic education/cooperation with civil society:
During the reporting period, the Federal Government supported projects – including in Uganda, the Horn of Africa, Colombia and Nepal – aimed at providing women with easier access to the legal system, strengthening the role of women in peace processes, promoting the further education of local female politicians as well as contributing to capacity-building of women’s organizations. Additional projects, among them projects in Côte d’Ivoire, Pakistan, the Palestinian Territories and in Chechnya, were aimed at promoting women’s political rights and their right to vote, educating teaching staff about issues of women’s rights as well as promoting campaigns to raise awareness among women in refugee camps regarding legal issues. In Liberia, the Federal Government supported the development of the National Action Plan for the Implementation of Resolution 1325.
In Afghanistan, the Federal Government is making a significant contribution, inter alia through the programme “Gender Mainstreaming”. This programme supports Afghan government institutions at national and provincial level in their obligation to implement key aspects of the strategy papers “Afghan National Development Strategy” (ANDS) and “National Action Plan for Women in Afghanistan” (NAPWA). To this end, departments for gender justice were established in the respective ministries, and Afghan government employees at various levels, both male and female, received training. By now, the majority of decision-makers in the government have developed an appreciation for the above-mentioned strategy papers and the obligations involved. Initial steps towards implementation have been taken. The concluding document of the Kabul Conference of 20 June 2010 emphasizes the fact that women’s rights and political, economic and social equality are central to the future of Afghanistan and that the Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) should be implemented in concrete terms. Within Afghan society, there is a growing awareness regarding the needs of women and an increasing willingness to defend women’s rights or demand their implementation. For example, far more female candidates registered for parliamentary elections in September 2010 (3869) than for parliamentary elections in 2005 (328). In preparation for the Peace Jirga in early June 2010, a major conference in Kabul was financed in April that was attended by 260 women. The event was organized by various women’s civil society organizations, such as the Afghan Women’s Network and Equality for Peace and Democracy, as well as by a group of female parliamentarians and the Ministry of Women’s Affairs. The women have begun to mobilize and make demands of their own, both regarding their participation in the process and their influence on the contents. In the judiciary sector, the Federal Government is providing support for the NGO “Medica Mondiale – Rights of Afghan Women and Girls”, which offers legal counselling services to women in the cities of Mazar-e-Sharif, Kabul and Herat.
In Colombia, the programme “Peace-Building by Promoting Cooperation between Government and Civil Society” (CERCAPAZ) made a contribution, in line with Resolution 1325, to the adoption of a gender perspective in regional and local peace agendas through the involvement of women’s organizations and government institutions at various levels. Among other measures, functionaries of the judiciary and female members of communal councils were trained in the gender-sensitive handling of cases of violence against women and now put those principles into practice.
In Nepal, the Federal Government has, since 2007, been supporting the UNIFEM Programme “Making Politics Work with Women”, which trains women’s organizations in effectively demanding equal rights when engaging in dialogue with parties. Party members as well as female parliamentarians were sensitized to issues regarding the advancement of equal rights and the specific needs of women. This has helped bring the proportion of women in the constituent assembly to 33%.
In the Philippines, the Federal Government provided support to a measure of a church organization that used educational work to promote the participation of particularly disadvantaged population groups in peace processes. Indigenous, Muslim and Christian women were involved, with the goal of strengthening their leadership qualities. A core group of local female leaders was formed, making the contributions of women to the political discussion on the protection of female civilians in combat situations more visible. This visibility is further enhanced through networking activities of women in areas affected by the armed conflict, so that the interests of women are receiving even more public attention.
The successful project “Mobile Peace Academy OMNIBUS 1325”, organized by the women’s organization OWEN e.V. and supported by the BMFSFJ, was extended. Civilian peace experts from the Caucasus region are receiving further training in seminars on site and in Germany on the mainstreaming of gender aspects in conflict prevention, conflict management and post-conflict peacebuilding.
III.2.2. Projects aimed at protecting against and preventing violence/victim support
The Federal Government supports and promotes projects aimed at preventing sexual violence, programmes that provide care for victims of sexual violence and assist in their reintegration as well as projects that provide access to legal advice for victims of sexual violence.
The Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), on behalf of the Federal Government (BMZ), is conducting studies into the phenomenon of systematic rape. The aim is to determine typologies of wartime rape and wartime contexts, thus enabling case-specific and context-specific prevention and therapy approaches in the area of technical cooperation.
In Cambodia, the Federal Government is involved in advising the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA) in the implementation of the Protection Against Violence Act. In Afghanistan, the Federal Government supports medical projects as well as projects aimed at providing psychosocial counselling and care for women who have become victims of violence.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, within the framework of the project “Support for the Reintegration of Ex-combatants and Refugees” and in cooperation with the NGO “HEAL Africa”, the Federal Government is providing support and financing for the medical and psychosocial care of women and girls who have been raped. The Federal Government is also engaged in activities to improve the living conditions of women traumatized by war, and in particular of victims of sexual violence, inKosovo, Liberia, Uganda and Afghanistan. These activities include psychosocial counselling, the treatment of physical injuries as well as educational measures on legal issues. In addition, the Federal Government supports measures aimed at preventing sexual violence. In Kenya, the Federal Government is supporting a UNIFEM programme on the support for women’s rights and gender equality in democratic governance.
III.2.3. Projects aimed at conflict prevention/security sector reform/demobilization and reintegration
Since 2004 the Federal Government has been supporting the project “Support for the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre” (KAIPTC) in Ghana. The principal areas of focus are the empowerment of relevant national and regional organizations as well as the expansion of regional training centres. At internal level, activities included developing management structures, undertaking capacity-building measures, promoting increased networking between KAIPTC, civil society groups and the ECOWAS Secretariat, as well as developing research capacities for conflict prevention, management and resolution. In addition, a number of gender-specific training measures received support, and the cooperation with civil society organizations in this area was expanded. A training handbook on gender and peace operations was compiled and will be used for future training purposes.
From 2002 to 2010, Germany supported a transnational demobilization and reintegration programme aimed at reintegrating ex-combatants in the Great Lakes region. Special DDR measures (disarmament, demobilization and reintegration) for former female combatants, female child soldiers and family members of ex-combatants were implemented in Burundi, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo, for example. These measures consisted, for example, of specialized training courses, income generating activities and psychosocial counselling. In Colombia, Germany supported the creation of a gender-sensitive registration system for former combatants, tailoring support services to their specific needs and promoting their reintegration into society.
The Federal Government also attaches particular significance to projects in the area of security sector reform, including those encouraging security forces to comply with standards of human and women’s rights. In 2009, Germany provided support for such a measure in Nigeria for the Nigerian police forces.
III.2.4. Projects in the field of law enforcement/justice/legislation
In 2007 the Federal Government commissioned German implementing organizations with carrying out a programme aimed at promoting good governance in Rwanda. Within the context of this programme, a special department for handling sexual offenses was established in the public prosecutor’s office, and one public prosecutor at every “Tribunal de Grand Instance” (12 in total) received specific training in this field. There are additional campaigns, for example in schools and on radio programmes, which are aimed at sensitizing the population to gender-based violence, as well as a hotline set up in 2009 informing about sexual offenses and gender-based violence. Such activities supply information on the legal situation and build trust in the work of the public prosecutor’s office and the courts, in particular among women and young people.
In Pakistan, the Federal Government is providing financial support within the framework of a three-year project to assist the Pakistani police in handling cases of sexual violence against women, and to establish gender units within the police force.
During the reporting period, the Federal Government made a 4.5-million-euro contribution to the Special Court for Sierra Leone, which also handles cases of gender-based violence.
In Latin America and Asia, the Federal Government also promotes measures by church organizations that support women’s rights organizations in investigating cases of sexual violence and in related lobby and advocacy work.
III.2.5. Projects in the field of education/business start-ups/access to economic resources
In Iraq, the Federal Government has been supporting the project “Berlin AGEF” since 2008. This is a business start-up seminar for Iraqi women and a further training programme for trainers of the Kurdistan Women’s Union, aiming to provide women with long-term training through local organizations and through strengthening the role of women in Iraq.
Some examples of activities by church organizations or political foundations that are supported by the Federal Government are the promotion of economic reconstruction in the north of Uganda, as well as the support of sectors in Timor-Leste where women traditionally play a central role (for example in agriculture and in the development of microenterprises). Women are given particular consideration within the framework of training courses teaching organizational and vocational skills.
III.2.6. Humanitarian assistance
The purpose of humanitarian assistance is to enable people who face an emergency that they cannot manage on their own to live in dignity and security. In such situations, the special needs of vulnerable groups must be given particular consideration. In the context of armed conflicts, women are among those who are particularly at risk. Phenomena such as the use of sexual violence as a means of waging war, the often long-term state of emergency that characterizes life in refugee camps and the particularly large number of households led by women in conflict-based crises (OP 12) all show the need for a gender-sensitive approach to humanitarian assistance.
The Federal Government has anchored such a gender-sensitive approach in the area of emergency humanitarian assistance and distress relief. The relevant funding concept mandates that the particular needs of women be taken into account in humanitarian crises. For all measures they carry out, project partners in the area of humanitarian assistance must show – from the project application phase to the concluding report – that they take gender-specific aspects into consideration. In practical terms this means that gender-specific aspects must be considered when assembling relief supply packages, just as they are to be considered in the construction of separate latrines in refugee camps for men and for women, for example. In addition, the Federal Government specifically promotes relief projects in armed conflict situations that contain measures especially designed to address women’s needs – for example by assisting women who have become victims of sexual violence or by providing firewood so that female refugees are not exposed to a heightened risk of sexual or other violence while gathering wood for fuel outside the camps. In its cooperation with international partners such as the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Federal Government consistently supports not only relief measures, but also protective measures aimed at, inter alia, ensuring that relevant stakeholders respect and take into consideration the rights and particular needs of women. These include, for example, measures to sensitize police and security personnel in refugee camps to gender issues. In the oversight and advisory bodies of international humanitarian organizations, the Federal Government supports efforts to further strengthen the gender perspective in the work of these organizations.
Focus: humanitarian mine and ordnance clearance
In numerous conflict regions, women and girls are particularly affected by the terrible consequences of mines, as in many societies they engage in activities such as working the fields, collecting wood and fetching water that often take them into mined terrain.
As contracting state to the “Convention on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons which may be deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effect” (UN Weapons Convention), the “Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction” (Ottawa Convention) and the “Convention on cluster munitions” (Oslo Convention), Germany supports humanitarian mine and ordnance clearance projects around the world, and since 1992 has spent approximately 183.5 million euro in 42 countries in this area.
Federal Government funds for humanitarian mine and ordnance clearance in countries threatened by mines and explosive remnants of war are normally distributed through national and international non-governmental organizations. The projects provide support for the clearing of mines and explosive remnants of war, for education about risks and for victim assistance.
In the area of development-oriented emergency and transitional aid, the Federal Government is also engaged in promoting equal rights for men and women. Women are the primary target group of numerous measures. There are education and training measures that specifically provide support for households run by women, for landless women and for young single mothers. One example of such activities can be found in Nepal, where learning centres specializing in evening courses for women were established in communities affected by the consequences of civil unrest (migration of men to countries abroad to find employment, collapsed infrastructure). Besides literacy classes and courses in health education, the learning centre gives women the opportunity to exchange experiences and to discuss and find common solutions to problems. The education about their rights has also motivated many women to launch their own reconstruction initiatives at community level, for example in the rebuilding of destroyed schools.
IV. Implementation of Resolution 1325 by the European Union: Europe’s contribution to empowering women
IV.1. Measures undertaken by the EU in the framework of the Common Foreign and Security Policy
Gender equality is a basic principle of the European Union and an important prerequisite for achieving the objectives of the European Union in the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Within the framework of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and in particular in the area of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), Germany is actively engaged in the incorporation of a gender perspective.
The “EU Commission roadmap for equality between women and men 2006 – 2010” establishes six priority areas of action. Among other things, it calls on the EU and its member states to promote the equal integration of women in economic and political life as well as in economic and political decision-making processes, in conflict prevention and resolution, in peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction measures. The Commission itself is actively committed to advancing the implementation of Resolution 1325. Steps it has taken include laying out guidelines for gender mainstreaming to be used in seminars and training courses on crisis management. In September 2010, the EU Commission presented a new Strategy for equality between men and women for the period 2010-2015. 
On December 8, 2008, the Council of the European Union adopted the “Comprehensive approach to the EU implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1325 and 1820 on women, peace and security” (15671/1/08 Rev 1, for references see Appendix 2, websites and links). These guidelines make women’s rights in the EU’s human rights policies towards third countries a matter of primary importance and set the parameters for EU reactions to specific cases of human rights violations.
On the same day, the Council also adopted the operative paper “Implementation of UNSCR 1325 as reinforced by UNSCR 1820 in the context of ESDP” (see Appendix 2, documentation). Both documents have since been the two central pillars of EU policy regarding women, peace and security.
The EU thereby decided to make women’s rights and gender equality affairs a permanent component of its actions – in particular in the context of the Common Foreign and Security Policy. The Council stressed the necessity to incorporate a gender perspective, not only in crisis management and in post-conflict reconstruction and development measures, but also in the areas of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), support for security sector reform (SSR), democratic governance, support measures for civil society, economic security and humanitarian assistance. The EU intends to continue to play a leading role, in particular in the fight against sexual violence in armed conflicts.
In this context, the Council called attention to the predominant role that Security Council Resolutions 1325 and 1820 play as guidelines for CSDP operations. These guidelines affirm a catalogue of principles and measures that aim to strengthen the role of women in conflict settings and step up the fight against violence against women. These principles were developed by EU bodies in collaboration with civil society stakeholders and are intended, inter alia, to ensure the effective integration of women in peace negotiations and reconstruction efforts during or after a conflict.
In peace processes and post-conflict settings, the EU acts on the basis of these guidelines and principles in order to, inter alia, implement OP 8 of Resolution 1325. Accordingly, the EU’s approach takes into consideration the special needs of women and girls during post-conflict repatriation, resettlement and reconstruction. It also aims to support local women’s peace initiatives and the participation of women in all mechanisms in the implementation of peace agreements, and strengthens the rights of women and girls (e.g. in the constitutional and legislative process and in police and judicial reform).
Focus: EU indicators on Resolutions 1325 and 1820
In the “Comprehensive approach” to the implementation of Resolutions 1325 and 1820, the EU commits to developing indicators by which “progress regarding the protection and empowerment of women in conflict settings and post-conflict situations” can be measured. The Council adopted the corresponding catalogue of indicators on 26 July 2010 (Appendix 2, documentation). These indicators were developed by the EU’s inter-institutional “Task force 1325”. Participants in this group are representatives of the Commission, the Council Secretariat and the member states; the group is responsible for developing and furthering a unified approach in matters of gender equality in the EU’s external relations. Germany played a part in developing these indicators within the context of the task force on UNSCR 1325. The indicators of the European Union for the “Comprehensive approach to the EU implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1325 and 1820” measure success in four areas: 1. Activities at third-country and regional level, 2. Integration of the topic of “peace, women and security” into EU priorities, 3. Participation of women, 4. International protection of women.
With the support of the member states, the EU is implementing concrete measures in this area. Issues such as the protection of women and women’s rights are systematically addressed in the EU’s dialogues with its partners, in particular within the framework of the EU human rights dialogue and other consultations. One of the EU’s longstanding areas of activity is its work with partner countries of the Union for the Mediterranean towards strengthening equal rights between men and women. The EU supports other organizations such as the African Union in questions of gender equality, for example through the deployment of experts in gender issues.
In the context of missions of the Common Security and Defence Policy, a German initiative was instrumental in the 2007 publishing and presentation to the public, during Germany’s trio presidency with Portugal and Slovenia, of the EU internal handbook on “Mainstreaming of Human Rights and Gender into ESDP”, which was compiled under the German presidency. By now, the deployment of gender advisors has become an integral component of the planning of CSDP missions and operations. EU humanitarian assistance measures also systematically take into account the special needs of women in crisis situations. Gender perspectives and the Resolutions 1325 and 1820 are explicitly incorporated into crisis management concepts and operational planning.
The paper “Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and UNSCR 1820 in the context of training for the ESDP missions and operations – recommendations on the way forward” (Document 13899/09) provides information on the incorporation of a gender perspective into the training for peace missions within the framework of the CSDP. This working document was the result of a seminar and a questionnaire in the design of which the Federal Government was actively involved.
The proportion of women among personnel of CSDP missions is currently at approximately 24%. The proportion varies, however, between seconded personnel (13%), contracted personnel (30%) and local staff (36%). By employing high numbers of women from the local workforce, in particular, the missions not only ensure their protection, but as an employer also provide concrete income opportunities for women in post-conflict situations.
For the European Union, just as for the Federal Government, the strengthening of an effective multilateral system with the United Nations at its centre is a political priority. The EU has repeatedly stressed its commitment to pursue the goals of security and peace, respect for human rights and sustainable development, also within the framework of the United Nations. Together, the 27 member states of the EU are the largest contributors to the regular UN budget, as well as of the UN budget for peace missions. In recent years, the EU has advanced and intensified its partnership with the United Nations, in particular in the area of military and civilian peace operations. The EU and the UN are currently engaged in close cooperation in numerous conflict regions in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
The European Union is committed to the implementation of the Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth World Conference for Women in 1995 in Beijing, including with regard to the Platform for Action’s fifth critical area of concern, “Women and Armed Conflict”. To mark the 15th anniversary of the Beijing Platform for Action in 2010, the EU carried out a thorough assessment of the implementation of the Platform within the EU. The Swedish EU Council Presidency presented the results of this assessment to the Council in its report “Beijing + 15: The Platform for Action and the European Union”.
The Federal Government sees it as a key task to support the EU in its work in and with the United Nations, and, at preparatory EU coordination meetings in Brussels, Geneva and New York, to emphasize with other EU partners the significance of Resolution 1325 and to contribute to its implementation.
IV.2. The EU as donor
Germany was actively involved in the preparation of the “EU Action Plan on Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Development for the period 2010-2015”, which was adopted in June 2010 as part of the Council Conclusions on the Millennium Development Goals. The EU Action Plan builds on the Council Conclusions of May 2007 (“Equality and Participation – the role of women in development cooperation”), which were drafted with significant participation of the Federal Government and adopted under the German Presidency. It demands an end to violence against women, in particular in conflict situations and in post‑conflict settings. One focus of the EU Action Plan is the support of partner countries in the implementation of Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889. The Federal Government, in cooperation with other member states, will put this plan into effect over the coming years.
In 2008, as a contribution to the EU’s development policy strategy with regard to women in armed conflicts, the Federal Government, with BMZ funds and the support of Austria, financed a study on women in armed conflicts (“Enhancing the EU response to women and armed conflict with particular reference to Development Policy”, April 2008).
The guidelines of the European Union for combating violence against women (“EU guidelines on violence against women and girls and combating all forms of discrimination against them”, December 2008) provide additional direction for a gender-sensitive EU development policy. The guidelines emphasize the EU’s clear political will to treat women’s rights as a priority area and to engage in measures with a long-term scope. Their focus is on the prevention of violence, the protection of and support for victims as well as on the prosecution of perpetrators. The guidelines are also intended to encourage the funding of more projects from these areas out of the EU budget and by member states.
The “Comprehensive approach to the EU implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1325 and 1820 on women, peace and security” focuses not only on supporting women in conflict situations, it also deals with development policy measures. Objectives include the increased incorporation of the topic into the political dialogue with partner countries, improved training for EU personnel and the increased integration of gender perspectives into EU projects and Country and Region Strategy Papers. Particular attention is to be devoted to the role and the participation of women in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes for security sector reform (SSR).
V. Implementation of Resolution 1325 in the framework of the United Nations: Peacebuilding and post-conflict rehabilitation and the role of the United Nations
V.1. Gender equality policies in the UN and the participation of women
In the United Nations the Federal Government is able to advance the cause of gender equality and women’s empowerment through its membership in numerous bodies and organs, through its status as third-largest contributor to the regular UN budget as well as through contributions to relevant funds and programmes. German engagement often has the greatest prospects of success in areas where the Federal Government can take positions within the framework and with the backing of the European Union. Within the United Nations context as well, the European Union has one of the most influential voices when it comes to promoting the implementation of Resolution 1325. The active participation of members of German Permanent Missions and delegations in committees and EU coordination meetings at all UN locations provides many possibilities to exert influence.
Within the framework of the United Nations, the topics of gender equality, women’s rights and the participation of women received and continue to receive particular attention during the reporting period: December 2009 marked the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) dedicated its 2010 annual session, marking the 10th anniversary of the Beijing World Conference on Women, to the review of the status of implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration, and to the identification of areas where particular deficits exist. As a member of the Commission on the Status of Women, the Federal Government sent a high-level delegation to its sessions and to the preceding EU coordination meetings, and as Chair of the regional “Group of Western European and other States” (WEOG), the Federal Government also took part in the Commemorative Meeting of the General Assembly to mark the 15th anniversary of the Beijing Conference on 2 March 2010. Accompanying the CSW session, the Federal Government organized several well-attended side events on topics that included the role of women in conflicts and conflict management. The Federal Government also acted as host for side events organized by non-governmental organizations covering, among other things, the topic of equal pay. Female representatives of the Bundestag Committee on Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth took part in the CSW session and in a number of the side events.
During its 48th session in 2004, the CSW adopted – within the framework of the regular review of the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome document of the 23rd Special Session of the General Assembly in 2000 – joint resolutions on the topic of “Women’s equal participation in conflict prevention, management and conflict resolution and in post-conflict peace-building”. At the forefront were efforts to strengthen the formal participation of women at all levels of peace processes. In 2008, a review of the implementation of these “agreed conclusions” took place.
In the run-up to the high-level review summit on the Millennium Development Goals in September 2010, particular attention was given to issues of gender equality, especially in conjunction with Development Goals 3 (Promote gender equality and empower women), 4 (Reduce child mortality) and 5 (Improve maternal health). Gender equality and development was the key issue of the annual session of ECOSOC in its June 2010 ministerial segment held in preparation for the review summit. The concluding ministerial declaration “Implementing the internationally agreed goals and commitments in regard to gender equality and empowerment of women” highlighted the role of women in the implementation of the development goals. In recent years, a concurrent awareness has developed within the framework of the United Nations, as stressed by numerous UN documents, acknowledging that progress towards equality for and empowerment of women is a prerequisite for progress in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals.
On 18 March 2010, the Federal Government, in its role as member of the Group of Friends of 1325, and Canada, as chair of the group, organized an event in New York at which the UN Secretariat’s head of the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) and the head of UNIFEM presented their strategy on “Gender and Mediation” to those UN members with a particular interest in the topics of Resolution 1325 and in mediation. The objective of this strategy is to achieve, inter alia, an increase in proportion of women involved in mediation processes. Since 2007, the Federal Government (BMZ) has provided support to UNIFEM in the form of untied contributions worth 4.795 million euro (OP 7).
V.2. Security Council Resolution 1325 and its follow-up Resolutions
During the reporting period, the Security Council addressed, on numerous occasions, the role of women in conflicts and conflict prevention, and adopted three new Resolutions (1820, 1888, 1889) on the topic of “women, peace and security”, which advance and reinforce the demands of Resolution 1325. Among other things, the three follow-up Resolutions categorize sexual violence in the context of armed conflict as war crimes punishable by sanctions, and call for greater attention to the role of women and the participation of women in post-conflict peacebuilding processes. Of particular importance regarding the role of women in conflicts is Security Council Resolution 1894 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, through which the Security Council aims to fight violations of international humanitarian law and of human rights in conflict situations, and through which it reinforces the concept of the “Responsibility to Protect”. The UN Secretary-General regularly submits to the Security Council reports on the implementation of the above-mentioned Resolutions, which also incorporate the reporting of the Federal Government. On 26 October 2010, in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Security Council Resolution 1325 (31 October 2010), the Security Council, within the framework of an Open Debate, adopted indicators for the implementation of Resolution 1325  . The Federal Government, together with its EU partners, had previously lobbied for the adoption of these indicators. As a member, Germany regularly takes part in the sessions of the “Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security,” and during its upcoming Security Council membership 2011/2012, it will uphold its strong commitment to achieving the implementation of Resolution 1325.
Focus: Follow-up Resolutions 1820, 1888 and 1889
On 19 June 2008, the Security Council of the United Nations, acting on the initiative of the United States, adopted Resolution 1820 on “Women, Peace and Security: Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts”. Resolution 1820 condemns the systematic use of sexual violence as an instrument of warfare, and recognizes therein a particular threat to peace and security.
In 2009, two new Resolutions once again reinforced and expanded the contents of Resolutions 1325 and 1820: Resolution 1888 (“Women, Peace and Security”, 30 September 2009) defines in more concrete terms the instruments of Resolution 1820 and opens up the possibility of punishing sexual violence in conflicts with Security Council sanctions. Resolution 1888 calls for the appointment of a Special Representative on sexual violence in conflicts; UN Secretary-General Ban fulfilled this demand in 2010 with the appointment of Margret Wallström. With Resolution 1889 (“Women, Peace and Security”, 5 October 2009), the Security Council called upon the UN Secretary-General to increase the proportion of women in the personnel of peace missions and in peace processes and to include experts for gender equality and the protection of human rights in the missions’ mandates. The member states of the UN are obligated to step up efforts in incorporating women into peace negotiations and post-conflict strategies, and to take into consideration the interests of women in the funding of aid programmes. Germany has contributed to and endorsed all three Resolutions.
V.3. The United Nations’ new gender entity “UN Women”
In 2010, with the establishment of a new United Nations entity for gender equality and the empowerment of women, a crucial reform measure was implemented that is also of significance for the implementation of Resolution 1325.
On 2 July 2010, after four years of negotiations, the General Assembly adopted Resolution A/64/289, which, in addition to harmonizing operative UN development cooperation, established the UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, or “UN Women”. In this new entity, the UN’s four previously distinct entities or programmes in the area of gender equality and women’s affairs are combined into one strong, effective and visible organization. It merges the two Secretariat entities Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) and Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI), the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) and the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). Following a transitional phase, this new entity is to be fully operational as of 1 January 2011.
The new entity links, in equal measure, normative with operative work in the area of gender equality and gender justice (“composite entity”). Its tasks include support for the cross-sectoral issue of gender equality throughout the entire UN system, political consultancy for multi-state bodies and member states, the implementation of normative gender equality standards as well as operative fieldwork on specific development policy programmes. The entity assumes all mandates of the previously existing organizations and, based on the overall acquis of the United Nations, will work towards the goal of gender equality, including in terms of relevant Security Council Resolutions such as 1325 and 1820.
UN Women is led by an official holding the rank of Under-Secretary-General. On 14 September 2010, the UN Secretary-General appointed Michelle Bachelet, former President of Chile, as the entity’s first head. She is a member of the Chief Executives Board for Coordination, the United Nations’ highest internal coordinating body. This puts UN Women on equal standing with the largest departments in the UN and underscores the importance of the entity within the UN hierarchy. In addition to its staff in New York, a comprehensive field staff is gradually being built up for its operative work. The normative work of UN Women is financed out of the regular UN budget, whereas the financing for operative work comes from voluntary contributions.
Different supervisory bodies are responsible for the organization’s normative and operative work. The supervisory body for the normative area is the Commission on the status of (CSW). For the operative area, a new Executive Council was set up, which is made up of 41 seats: 10 from Africa, 10 from Asia, 4 from the Eastern European Group, 6 from the Latin America and the Caribbean Group (GRULAC), and 5 from the WEOG group (Western European and other States), whose members include countries of Western Europe and, inter alia, the United States. 4 additional seats are designated for the biggest donors of untied voluntary contributions in the area of gender equality (“core financial contributors”) as well as 2 for developing countries that are not members of the OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and make voluntary contributions to UN Women. Funding and staffing of the entity are not conclusively laid out in the Resolution; the General Assembly or the Executive Board are expected to decide on this soon. The Resolution provides for a review of the work of the new entity in the 68th Session of the General Assembly (2013).
The Federal Government, during the difficult 4-year negotiation process, actively supported the creation of a structure that combines normative work (e.g. review of the implementation of standards) and operative work in a sensible way, and which has sufficient authority and visibility within the system of the United Nations. The equipping of the entity with a comprehensive mandate also reflects the interests of the Federal Government and of its EU partners.
For the Federal Government, the establishment of the entity is tied to the expectation that its new, efficient structure and high-ranking management will also give more weight to the issue of “women, peace and security” and enable a more sustainable integration into the work of all UN bodies and member states. The Federal Government will work toward ensuring that the Security Council and the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) work closely with UN Women.
V.4. Peacekeeping operations and UN peace missions
Since the adoption of Resolution 1325, the United Nations, in cooperation with member states and troop contributing nations, is committed to meeting the demands of the Resolution, for example by increasing the proportion of women in military and police missions and by incorporating aspects of gender equality into mission planning and training.
In particular, the Federal Government pursues and supports efforts by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the Department of Field Support (DFS) to increase the proportion of women in peace missions, in particular among senior staff.
On the basis of Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820 and 1889, the Federal Government backs the integration of gender aspects into peace missions through targeted project support. The example of police missions shows how important the active cooperation of member states is. At an event in June 2010 opened by UN Secretary-General Ban, the newly appointed Police Advisor Ann-Marie Orler, who is the first woman to hold this office, called for a higher proportion of women in UN police missions (of the 13,221 police officers deployed in UN operations in April 2010, only 996 were women). Orler called upon member states to redouble their efforts. At the same event, there was favourable mention of German support for building up and developing police missions, which focuses particularly on increasing the proportion of women.
Within the framework of the UN, the Federal Government, during the reporting period, provided funding for a post in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations thathandles the implementation of Resolution 1820 (“Women, Peace and Security: Sexual violence in armed conflicts”), and also supported a training programme on gender issues for police units in UN peace missions.
The Federal Government also contributed its gender expertise to the Darfur Planning Team of the DPKO and supported the DKPO’s anti-prostitution campaign, which is directed at UN peace forces. In June 2010, the Federal Foreign Office funded a two-week course in Khartoum on fighting sexual and gender-based violence, in particular against women and children. This course provided training for African policewomen participating in the UN peace mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) and the African Union/UN Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID).
In 2010, negotiations on peacekeeping reform (peacekeeping operations and measures) entered into a decisive phase. In these negotiations, the Federal Government and the European Union actively supported incorporating the issues of gender equality and the participation of women into the reorganization of peacekeeping operations.
Focus: Reform of peacekeeping operations
In addition to general questions of peacekeeping reform, the issues of gender in peacekeeping operations and “Women in armed conflicts” played a significant role in the General Assembly’s Special Committee for Peacekeeping Operations (the so-called “C-34 Committee”). As a member of the C-34 Committee, Germany, in close coordination with EU partners, supported a particular focus on this topic in the debate on reform.
This support entailed underscoring the significance of Resolution 1325, promoting its further implementation and calling for a higher proportion of women in UN peacekeeping personnel.
Furthermore, there was a particular emphasis on the United Nations’ zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation by members of UN peacekeeping operations, and mechanisms were proposed to implement this policy on a practical level.
V.5. German participation in UN bodies
Germany is represented in numerous UN organs and bodies on a permanent basis or at regular intervals, and can thus be involved in decision-making or exert influence across the entire spectrum of the United Nations’ work. In addition to the Security Council, as author of Resolution 1325 and its follow-up Resolutions, and the relevant bodies responsible for gender issues, such as the Commission on the Status of Women or the CEDAW Committee, nearly all organs, bodies and organizations of the UN system deal, in one way or another, with issues of women and gender. This applies to the same degree to the General Assembly, with its main committees (in particular those dealing with human rights and development policy), as it does to the Human Rights Council, the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), the Economic and Social Council, the Commission for Social Development, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization as well as many other organizations.
Given the large number of bodies and topics, it is essential that there be a consistent and coordinated approach to issues of gender equality and empowerment of women, and that this approach be actively incorporated into the work of all bodies. Germany has the advantage, compared to many other partner countries, of being represented in a majority of bodies. It can also rely on information from one of the largest networks of bilateral embassies in the world and can add additional weight to its positions through coordination within the EU.
During Germany’s last membership in the Security Council (2003/4), the Federal Government was actively engaged in anchoring the demands for the integration and protection of women in the mandates of peacekeeping missions and bolstering the demands of Resolution 1325 in numerous debates of the Security Council. Germany will continue this approach during its next membership in the Security Council in 2011/2012.
Since 2003, the Federal Government has been taking part in the meetings of the so-called “Friends of 1325”, an informal group of member states, led by Canada, committed to supporting the issues of Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security. The meetings offer not only the opportunity to gain first-hand information and suggestions, but also provide a forum to coordinate mutual positions and joint initiatives and exert a direct influence on key stakeholders.
The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), which is responsible for developing joint strategies of conflict management and post-conflict peacebuilding, is a central forum for the demand for greater integration of women into post-conflict settings. In 2010, Germany held the presidency of the Commission. In that function, the Federal Government attached the greatest of importance to the systematic integration of women into peace processes on the ground in crisis states. On 17 May 2010, under German presidency and on German initiative, a meeting of the organizing committee took place that focused on the role of women in peacebuilding. The results of this discussion were included in the UN Secretary-General’s report on “Women’s participation and inclusion in peacebuilding and planning in the aftermath of conflict”. Recommendations from the session called for, inter alia, greater involvement of the respective civil society in women’s issues, a strengthening of regional and local women’s networks, a stronger focus on the needs of women in post-conflict phases and an increased proportion of women active as mediators in conflict management processes.
VI. Implementation in other international organizations: regional organizations and German participation
The Federal Government is supporting the NATO action plan “Gender Balance and Diversity 2007-2010”, adopted in June 2007, which includes, inter alia, concrete objectives to achieve gender justice within NATO. The proportion of women in NATO is to be increased through fair terms for application and hiring, well as through improved work conditions, for example in the form of part-time employment.
Furthermore, the Federal Government supports NATO’s policy for implementing Resolution 1325 in NATO-led operations, which was adopted in December 2007. In June 2010, NATO submitted a progress report after establishing structural and personnel prerequisites for implementing Resolution 1325 in the areas of operational planning, training and execution. Particularly noteworthy are the newly created posts for gender equality issues at various levels of NATO’s command structure, the integration of gender perspectives in basic and further training and in the preparation for operations, as well as the deployment of gender advisors to the operational headquarters of ISAF and KFOR.
Germany is a member of the “NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives”, which with reference to Resolution 1325 provides practical support in terms of integrating a gender perspective into all areas of NATO-led operations.
The communiqué of the NATO Summit in Lisbon on 19/20 November 2010 was the first Summit Declaration to include an entire paragraph dedicated solely to UNSCR 1325. It reaffirms the commitment of the Alliance and its partners in the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council to implement the Resolution and calls attention to the Action Plan adopted in Lisbon, which provides an initial guideline to the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in NATO-led operations.
Within the framework of the 2004 “OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality”, the Federal Government is supporting the protection of women’s rights, the fight against violence against women and the objective of gender equality within the overall OSCE context.
The Action Plan promotes a stronger role for women in the areas of conflict prevention, management and resolution, as well as in post-conflict reconstruction. This also includes efforts to increase the proportion of women in the classical action areas of peace operations, for example in police work, in politico-military affairs or in conflict resolution.
The Federal Government is regularly represented at OSCE events dealing with this thematic area. In March and October of 2009, for example, two events took place that focused on the topic of gender and security in the implementation of Resolution 1325. In addition, the OSCE Security Committee, under German Presidency, held a special session on 7 June 2010 on the subject of “Understanding the Benefits of Women’s Involvement in Security”. It was the first time that the body dealt in detail with the issue of gender equality in the area of security – at the initiative of and in close coordination with the German expert Jamila Seftaoui, Senior Adviser on Gender Issues in the OSCE Secretariat.
Furthermore, the Federal Government supported decisions made by the OSCE Ministerial Council on topics of gender equality, including the Athens 2009 decision on Women’s Participation in Political and Public Life. Germany is also actively committed to achieving the target laid out in the Action Plan to increase the presence of women in national and international institutions and within mechanisms of conflict prevention, management and resolution.
With its support for various projects, the Federal Government makes a significant contribution to achieving the defined objectives. During the reporting period, for example, Germany funded several projects relating to the topics of security and gender equality: “Advanced Training in Gender and Human Rights for the Civil Society Groups – Combating Trafficking in Human Beings” (OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission in Skopje); “Experts Seminar on Innovative Approaches to Combating Violence against Women” (OSCE Secretariat, Vienna); “Kukes Women Centre – Youth and Domestic Violence” (OSCE Presence in Albania).
VI.3. Council of Europe
Also within the framework of the Council of Europe, the Federal Government promotes the implementation of Resolution 1325 and supports relevant activities of the Council of Europe. Currently, the BMFSFJ and BMJ are actively engaged in supporting the work of the Council of Europe’s expert committee CAHVIO in its drafting of a legally binding agreement for preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. The Federal Government is lobbying to ensure that this agreement is expressly applied to armed conflict situations as well. The Committee of Ministers is about to adopt the recommendation, which has been subject to negotiations since 2008, on the role of women and men in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding.
During the sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, the Secretariat of the Council of Europe regularly organizes thematically relevant events in New York. This year’s event focussed on the 15-year review of the Platform for Action of the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women. In the declaration “Making Gender Equality a Reality”, the Council of Europe’s Ministerial Conference, held in Madrid on 12 May 2009, renewed the commitment of the Council of Europe to the implementation of Resolution 1325.
VII. Outlook: Future priority areas and objectives of the Federal Government in the implementation of Resolution 1325
Based on the assessment of all relevant ministries, inter-ministerial exchange and coordination on the areas of Resolution 1325 is functioning well, although it needs to be further strengthened. The exchange with civil society should also continue to be expanded.
The Federal Government supports all demands and facets of Resolution 1325 and its follow-up Resolutions. The Federal Government will also devote particular attention to those issues during its Security Council membership in 2011/2012. In order to achieve concrete results in the implementation of these wide-ranging demands, however, it makes sense to set priorities and to strengthen engagement in certain areas.
During the next reporting period (end of 2010 – end of 2013), the Federal Government will attach particular importance to making progress in the implementation of the following areas of Resolution 1325, without losing sight of the other aspects:
· Participation of women in national, regional and international institutions and mechanisms for the prevention and management of conflicts (OP 1)
· Training efforts for gender sensitization (OP 7)
· Adopting gender perspectives and taking into account the participation of women when negotiating and implementing peace agreements (OP 8)
· Attention to the needs of women in the planning and implementation of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes (OP 13)
Based on these objectives and priorities, the Federal Government aims to implement a series of projects, which are to be concluded or discernibly advanced in time for the submission of the next Implementation Report in 2013. To this end, the Federal Government will follow, inter alia, the indicators developed by the United Nations and the EU.
The following table provides an overview of the planned measures, as well as a timeframe for their implementation.
Identification and publishing of contact persons for Resolution 1325 in participating ministries
AA, BMZ, BMFSFJ, BMVg, BMI, BMJ
Contact persons in relevant ministries for topics of Resolution 1325 or, when not available, for individual subject areas, are easily accessible for the public
Increased coordination und information exchange between participating ministries as the basis for developing joint strategies for the implementation of Resolution 1325
(participation of AA, BMZ, BMVg, BMI, BMJ)
Another workshop discussion on “Women and Armed Conflict” is held, evaluation of the study of the German Institute for Human Rights on “Women as Stakeholders in Peace Processes”, micro-site is developed as an Internet platform (initially internally for respective ministries) in order to improve communication on 1325.
October 2010 -spring 2011
Increased coordination between Inter-ministerial Working Group on Resolution 1325 and other task forces relevant to the area of “Women, peace and security”
AA, BMZ, BMFSFJ, BMVg, BMI, BMJ
Regular mutual briefings of the Working Group Resolution 1325 and other steering groups (for example the Inter-ministerial Steering Group for Civilian Crisis Prevention) take place, or a representative of Working Group 1325 takes part in meetings of other task forces.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Inter-ministerial Working Group 1325 regularly monitors implementation of EU and UN indicators and develops recommendations for implementation at national level
AA, BMZ, BMFSFJ, BMVg, BMI, BMJ
One meeting of Working Group Resolution 1325 per year is devoted to implementation of EU and UN indicators and formulates recommendations for national implementation.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Support for projects in areas of particular relevance for 1325 (see EU indicator No. 5)
BMZ, AA, BMFSFJ, BMVg
Gender-relevant projects, in particular in areas of SSR, DDR, peace processes and capacity-building of women’s organizations are supported to an even greater degree.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Continue efforts to increase German proportion of women in participating ministries and in missions abroad
AA, BMZ, BMFSFJ, BMVg, BMI, BMJ, BMWi, BMF,
Proportion of women in key positions in participating ministries and in missions abroad has increased.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Continue efforts to increase German proportion of women in German personnel of international organizations, in particular in senior positions
Proportion of women in German personnel in international organizations has increased.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Continue efforts to increase proportion of women in German personnel in military, police and civilian operations in field missions
BMVg, BMI, ZIF, AA
Proportion of women in German personnel in military, police and civilian operations in field missions has increased.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Strengthen awareness of gender aspects in planning of peacebuilding, SSR, DDR and peace processes
AA, BMZ, ZIF
Conception of training units, inter alia for political and development cooperation officers at missions abroad and ministerial representatives regarding the role of women in peacekeeping and development
Concept end of 2011, initial seminars offered in 2012
Work towards participation of women in peace processes
AA, BMZ, BMVg, BMFSFJ
Utilize bilateral contacts with governments, parliaments, non-governmental stakeholders in conflict states or regions in order to push for more participation of women in peace processes; address topic in EU in the context of common foreign and security policy
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Strive for GER membership in relevant UN bodies
inter alia AA, BMZ, BMFSFJ
GER stands as candidate for relevant bodies (e.g. CSW).
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Expand expertise in subject areas of Resolution 1325 in UN-led missions and other peacekeeping missions etc.
inter alia AA, BMVg, BMI
GER supports establishment of gender advisor positions and training capacities within the framework of UN, EU etc., and funds corresponding measures.
Review in Implementation Report 2013
Appendix 1: What has Germany done specifically? Selected examples of projects (Table)
Paragraph in Resolution 1325 (2000)
Funds for current phase (in euro)/ responsible ministry
OP 1, 8 (c)
Gender mainstreaming in Afghanistan
Selected ministries at national/provincial level incorporate a gender perspective into their policies, take the gender perspective into account in planning and implementation of programmes/projects and include it in their budgets. Involvement of women and men, because they are central to the processes of necessary social transformation.
2007 – 2010
OP 1, 8 (c)
Structural funding for the Ministry of Women Development, Pakistan
Ministry of Women Development and departments for the promotion of women at provincial level are, according to their mandate, capable of working toward ensuring that the Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) demonstrate a consistent gender orientation in projects, policies and programmes in priority sectors of the National Action Plan.
2005 – 2010
Support for the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) in Ghana
KAIPTC successfully and sustainably meets the need for integrated civilian training in the field of peace and security for West Africa. Target groups are, inter alia, trainers of national, supraregional and civil society institutions who receive training seminars on Mainstreaming Gender and Women’s Issues in Multidimensional Peace Support Operation (Training of Trainers, ToT).
2009 – 2012
OP 6, 7
Bolstering of structures and stakeholders in and in conjunction with peace missions in East Africa (EASBRIG) and in Africa (supraregional)
The planning and training for peace support missions under the authority of EASBRICOM follows an integrated approach according to UN and African Union standards. The programme’s target groups are all people affected by armed conflicts in the crisis regions of Africa, while women and children are more likely to be victims of the violence. Intermediaries are persons deployed in or prepared for peace missions, i.e. military and police personnel and civilian experts, as well as EASBRICOM personnel and the training institutions collaborating with EASBRICOM in and outside of the region. Additional participants are representatives of countries where peace missions operate, including the parties to the conflict.
2008 – 2011
OP 6, 7
Support for the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region in Africa (supraregional)
The conference secretariat and the national coordinating mechanisms fulfil their assigned tasks and key initiatives of the pact.
Primary target group is the population of the areas of the Great Lakes Region worst affected by the violent conflicts and their repercussions (Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Rwanda), with particular attention to women and children who are to a greater degree victims of the tyranny and indiscriminate violence of warring parties. Another target group is the population of the other 7 participating countries, which also stands to benefit from improved regional cooperation. The area of the 11 ICGLR member states is home to an estimated 250 million people, the majority of whom live in very poor conditions, i.e. below the poverty line. The pact and the declaration of principles of Dar Es Salaam (2004) which it is based on define the promotion of equality between women and men as a cross-sectoral topic, which must be taken into account in the conception and implementation of all joint projects. Also anchored in the pact are special projects and an agreement under international law on the protection of women against sexual violence.
2008 – 2011
Forum for Dialogue and Peace/crisis prevention in Malawi
Key governmental institutions and civil society organizations provide the population, both women and men, with improved services in the area of constructive conflict management and crisis prevention.
2008 – 2009
OP 7, 8
Support for measures to reinforce the peace process in Nepal
For the involved stakeholders, the provision of support services for interned PLA fighters and inhabitants of surrounding communities is an example of the start of a successful implementation of the peace agreement. Women are taken into consideration as a target group in reintegration programmes (training regarding income generating activities, conflict resolution mechanisms etc.).
2007 – 2010
Democratic behaviour and conflict prevention through curricular and extra-curricular education (supraregional)
Educational concepts to promote peaceful coexistence and social cohesion through basic education are applied in priority area strategies and projects of German development cooperation. Target groups are children and young people from regions with high and acute conflict potential as well as those from disadvantaged population groups with a great need for targeted support measures in the area of education; these include girls and boys in school-based and extra-curricular educational institutions, as well as children and youths who do not attend educational institutions due to their difficult living conditions.
2007 – 2010
Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Fund in Timor-Leste
Selected Timorese organizations successfully implement initiatives for violence prevention and conflict management with young people. The project is targeted at young men and women living in urban and rural areas characterized by conflict, i.e. in communities in which young people are prone to use violence to solve conflicts.
2009 – 2011
OP 7, 10
Peace development and conflict transformation in vulnerable areas, in particular Mindanao in the Philippines
Selected non-governmental and governmental organizations are improving their services and mechanisms for promoting conflict transformation, peace development and poverty reduction in crisis-prone regions in Mindanao. A fund established for small-scale projects provides support in selected regions of Mindanao for target groups threatened by conflict, in order to strengthen their efforts at reducing poverty and managing conflicts.
2002 – 2009
OP 7, 10
Support for peace, security and good governance in the SADC region
In terms of promoting peace and security, democracy and good governance, the support programme for the political integration process in the SADC region is a success. Target group is the entire population of the SADC states, but in particular those parts of the population whose quality of life is severely impacted by existing conflicts and civil wars, by lack of participation in political processes and by deficits in governance, as well as by crime. Women, children and young people, as well as minorities, are among those particularly affected by the consequences of armed conflicts and crime.
2007 – 2010
OP 7, 8
Cooperative project “Programme to Promote Economic and Social Development and Peace in Casamance” in Senegal
The population of selected areas of Casamance is participating in measures to reduce conflicts and stabilize the economic and social conditions. The target group is made up of the inhabitants of the crisis zone, including families and individuals who have moved to neighbouring countries and are willing to return. Those are people particularly affected by the conflict (refugees, internally displaced persons, rebels expressing a willingness to integrate) and population groups who are impoverished or disadvantaged as a direct or indirect result of the conflict, including women, who bear its greatest burden.
2007 – 2010
8 (a), (c), 11, 13
Peace-building by promoting cooperation between government and civil society in Colombia (CERCAPAZ)
Gender plays a significant role at all levels of the CERCAPAZ programme, and the issue of gender is promoted through a cross-sectoral strategy. At local level, in line with UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820, a peace agenda with a gender perspective has been developed. An excellent example of a project involving the use of media to promote gender equality is the production of 5 short films and 5 training modules highlighting the specific contributions of women to peace development in Colombia.
2009 – 2012
Supporting alternative concepts for conflict resolution in Timor-Leste
The objective of this programme is to improve the conflict resolution potential of civil society actors in civilian conflict management in two districts. At local level, beneficiaries are those who use the services of mediators, potentially the entire population of the two affected districts. At national level they are the decision-makers in governmental institutions, the Ministry of Justice and the public administration, who are involved with the standardization of mediation processes. Since the financial resources of women are often too limited for them to benefit from the traditional mediation process, which depends on the exchange of goods and services, the interests of women are incorporated to a greater degree into the concepts being developed here.
2008 – 2011
Programme to support the peace process in Guatemala (PCON)
The processes of reconciliation, conflict prevention and peaceful conflict management that are supported by governmental and non-governmental stakeholders function sustainably at national and decentralized level. The project’s target group is the population suffering from the effects of the internal armed conflict, in particular the Maya population, which is most affected. Specific target groups include indigenous women and descendants of the victims of the civil war.
2006 – 2010
(10 132 493) 4,706,000
Project to support the reintegration of refugees in Burundi
In the province of Gitega, the socioeconomic conditions for sustainable economic development and reconciliation have improved. In particular, female returnees have benefitted from the measures.
2008 – 2010
OP 8 (c)
Support for OAS Mission in the area of victim support in Colombia
Providing financial assistance to the Mission of the Organization of American States to Support the Peace Process in Colombia (MAPP/OEA) in order to support its victim protection work. German support enabled MAPP/OEA to carry out a project to strengthen victim groups in the department Norte de Santander. This involved raising awareness of victims’ rights within the Justice and Peace process, mutual rapprochement and confidence-building measures between government institutions and civil society, as well as ensuring victims’ participation in the process and the creation of networks of victims’ groups. Because this pilot measure has been so successful, MAPP/OEA is now extending it to other regions of the country. The department’s government, too, is planning to use the model in other municipalities. In its work with the displaced population and the municipalities that reintegrate ex-combatants, MAPP/OEA integrates topics such as gender, children’s rights and respect for the rights of indigenous peoples and Afro-Colombian communities.
2008 – 2011
OP 8 (a), 10
Programme to support decentralization and communal development for peace in Colombia
Government and civil society support decentralized governance by improving social, economic and political conditions in order to reduce conflict potential. The project’s target group is the population of small and mid-sized municipalities in selected departments in Colombia. The interests of women and young people are taken into account in the programme’s economic and social components.
2002 – 2008
OP 8 (c)
Promotion of social justice, reconciliation and national cohesion in Kenya
Competent governmental and non-governmental stakeholders at various administrational levels receive active and effective support by the commissions of the reform agenda in their implementation of activities towards national cohesion and social justice. The target group is the Kenyan population, with an emphasis on victims of human rights violations (with particular attention to violence against women), victims of economic injustice, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and returnees, as well as violent offenders, in particular young people. The TC measure includes efforts by the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission to come to terms with injustice and violence. Since women were to a particular degree victims of violence and injustice, they form an important target group of the measure.
2009 – 2012
OP 8 (c)
Support for the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in the area of peace and security in Africa (supraregional)
The IGAD Secretariat acts as a reliable partner for its member states, the African Union and international development partners, with a particular competency in the area of peace and security in the IGAD region. The project’s target group is the general population in IGAD member states. Successful joint efforts of IGAD member states to promote peace and stability in the region represent a direct benefit for the entire population of member states. Since women and children are most affected by violent conflicts, they particularly benefit from the containment of such conflicts.
2008 – 2011
OP 8 (c),
Support for reforms to reduce violence against women in Pakistan
In the province of Punjab, improved measures are being implemented to prevent violence against women and to provide victim support.
2005 – 2009
Strengthening women’s rights to prevent violence in Colombia
The access of displaced women to their rights of participation and protection against violence is improved through bolstered capacities of selected governmental institutions, non-governmental networks and organizations that promote the rights of displaced women.
2010 – 2011
Promotion of women’s rights in Cambodia
The Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA), additional relevant government agencies and civil society organizations implement the Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence quickly and effectively.
2006 – 2010
Programme to reduce poverty and prevent crises through the promotion of good governance in Rwanda
Exemplary activities of the component of support for the public prosecutor’s office: In the area of criminal law relating to sexual crimes, the ONPJ (L’Organe National de Poursuite Judiciaire) developed forms that assist the police and public prosecutor’s office in cases of sexual crimes. In addition, there is ongoing cooperation between the ONPJ and the Hamburg-Eppendorf University Clinic: DNA analyses carried out by the clinic are a significant contribution to the secure evaluation of evidence in the area of criminal law relating to sexual crimes in Rwanda. Prior to this collaboration, witness testimony was customarily the only evidence evaluated, leading to significant shortcomings. The changes have led to marked improvements in criminal proceedings and an increased trust on the part of the population – and in particular of women – in the work of the public prosecutor’s office and the courts.
2007 – 2011
Advising the High Commission for Reintegration in Colombia
The High Commission for Reintegration (ACR) is capable of analyzing and documenting the reintegration process at local and national levels. To this end, a gender-sensitive registration system was developed and implemented in 40 service centres for demobilized combatants, which takes their differing needs into consideration.
2008 – 2010
German Contribution to the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Programme (MDRP)
Ex-combatants from government forces and armed groups in up to seven countries (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Uganda, Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic) form the target groups of the MDRP. An estimated 396,000 combatants are to be demobilized and reintegrated under the MDRP programme. While there is a small number of female fighters, the majority of ex-combatants are men, whose families must also be incorporated into reintegration measures.
2002 – 2010
Humanitarian assistance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
(International Committee of the Red Cross)
Humanitarian aid measures to benefit the civilian population in the crisis regions in North Kivu, South Kivu and Katanga, including training and medicine for health centres and 22 advice centres that provide specialized medical care and psychological support to the victims of sexual violence, the majority of whom are women, as well as emergency HIV post-exposure prophylaxis measures
01 March 2008 – 31 December 2008
Humanitarian assistance for 12,000 internally displaced people in Bakool and Waajid, Somalia
Improvement of drinking water supply, including by building wells. For each well, a water committee was formed; since in Somalia the fetching of water and the maintenance of sanitary equipment are traditional responsibilities of women, at least 40% of members of these committees were women. Men were included in the committees so that they recognized the importance of these tasks, which improved the standing of women in the community. Emergency care packages were distributed mainly to female-led households, which, as a rule are, more in need.
01 April 2008 –
28 February 2009
Humanitarian assistance in the Gaza Strip
Contribution to the supply of basic health services of the Palestinian Medical Relief Society by providing medicine and covering the operating costs for two mobile clinics and for enhanced services in the Jabalia Clinic
The emergency assistance measures are directed primarily at women, toddlers and babies, and services are tailored to their special needs. In general, mobile clinics have a particular significance for women, who especially in rural areas are less mobile and subject to greater restrictions in terms of freedom of movement.
March – August 2009
Humanitarian assistance for refugees in the 17 refugee camps of Kabul, Afghanistan
(ADRA Deutschland e.V.)
187 women from various districts of Kabul were hired as seamstresses. Their job was to sew approx. 7,750 blankets for the project. The women were paid an amount per blanket that was 100% above the market price, thereby helping the women to survive the harsh winter together with their children, who would otherwise often be sent onto the streets to beg. The blankets, in turn, were used for needy people in the refugee camps.
16 November 2009 –
15 February 2010
Humanitarian assistance during the extremely cold winter in Mongolia
(World Vision Germany)
This project focuses in particular on the medical needs of breast-feeding mothers and pregnant women. One segment of the target group live as nomads. Among them are more than 800 pregnant women. Due to the extreme weather conditions, they are extremely susceptible to infectious diseases. In addition, they are very restricted in their mobility and cannot easily reach hospitals in order to receive appropriate obstetric services, support in caring for their newborns or information on feeding them.
1 April – 31 July 2010
Emergency assistance for needy people in Lubero, North Kivu province, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Meeting the humanitarian needs of 4000 households of internally displaced and the families taking them in, including measures to raise awareness and maximize acceptance among the overall population in the project’s target area of the problems of survivors of gender-based and sexual violence, training for 20 members of law enforcement agencies on the legal situation regarding sexual violence and on relevant judicial procedures.
01 June 2010 –
30 September 2010
Advising the Pakistani police in dealings with and procedures regarding female victims of violence: establishment of a Gender Unit, Pakistan
Improvements in dealing with women as victims of violence
2009 – 2012
Training courses in the area of women’s and children’s rights through the NGO Indus Resource Centre, Pakistan
Greater awareness of women’s and children’s rights; reduction of violence against women and children in Sindh
Training courses through the NGO PAINAM in the area of human rights and in particular women’s rights in Pakistan
Supporting defenders of human rights and women’s rights (PAINAM) to strengthen civil society and counteract tendencies towards radicalization
OP 7, OP 11
Human rights training in women’s and juveniles’ prisons in Pakistan
Projects in cooperation with the “Womens Prison Welfare Society” with the goal of strengthening the human rights awareness among prisoners and staff in the penal system
Protection of women’s rights (Rajja Community Development Programme), Pakistan
Raising awareness about women’s rights to reduce violence against women in Khyber Pakhtunkwa, Pakistan
OP 8 (a)
Setting up mobile health care centres and training midwives in the rural and medically under-resourced northern provinces of Kunduz, Takhar and Badakhshan/ Afghanistan
Improvement of inadequate medical care, in particular for women and children
2010 – 2012
NGO “Medica Mondiale” – Rights of Afghan women and girls
Legal advice for women in the cities of Mazar-e-Sharif, Kabul and Herat
2009 – 2010
OP 6, OP 7
Business start-ups: Seminar for Iraqi women/further training programme for female trainers in Kurdistan
Long-term training with the goal of promoting business start-ups for women in Iraq, further training for female trainers of the Kurdistan Women’s Union
OP 6, OP 7
Promoting women’s right to vote in Côte d’Ivoire
Support for the election process in CIV, informing people, in particular women, about election process and the right to vote
OP 6, OP 7
Strengthening women’s rights in Zambia
Training on women’s rights and on prevention of domestic violence for women, traditional leaders and authorities, in cooperation with YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association)
OP 6, OP 7
Promotion of women’s rights and protection against discrimination in Nicaragua
Building awareness through seminars, integrating marginalized groups and government agencies
OP 6, OP 7
Human rights training for Nigerian police force
Given the status of women in Nigerian society, there is a great need for sensitization of police on human rights standards, in particular in dealing with women and girls.
OP 6, OP 7
Training of teaching staff in Pakistan on women’s rights
The project promotes efforts to raise awareness and training measures on human rights and women’s rights in the framework of school education. Local advisors develop material and training modules for teaching staff in Pashto language.
Combating sexual violence, rehabilitation of victims of sexual violence in East Congo
Project in cooperation with the NGO AFEJUCO (Association of Female Lawyers of the Congo): psychological and legal counselling for women and children who have become victims of sexual violence
Support for victims of violence in Guatemala
Social, psychological and physical care for victims of violent offences and preventive measures with a focus on gender and human rights
Human rights training for female victims of violence in El Salvador
Support for self-help groups active in the areas of violence against women, psychological counselling, legal advice and vocational training as a basis for securing an independent livelihood
Strengthening legal certainty for women in Chechnya
Legal information campaigns, inter alia in refugee camps, development of a network for female refugees or displaced women
Strengthening women’s rights in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon
Further training measures directed at female staff of the Women’s Program Center. Objectives: empowering staff to run the organization, supporting the WPC in its efforts to strengthen the legal and social standing of female Palestinian refugees
Strengthening family law in Tajikistan
Advisory services in adapting family law in Tajikistan to intl. human rights standards
Measures against domestic violence in Ukraine
Further training for male and female police officers in cooperation with the NGO “Sumy Local Crisis Center”, seminars and public relations work
Equality for indigenous women in Peru
Further training for women to become radio correspondents in cooperation with the NGO Minga Peru in the Amazon region
Combating female genital mutilation in Djibouti
Information campaign that tours the country combating the practice of genital mutilation, in cooperation with the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Family Well-Being and Social Affairs of Djibouti
Combating female genital mutilation in Uganda
Events to raise awareness in cooperation with the NGO “Reach”
Access to the legal system for women in Uganda
Support for the UNIFEM programme promoting access for Ugandan women to the legal system and legal remedy
2009 – 2010
Access of women to decision-making positions in the Horn of Africa
Participation in the regional project of the Club de Madrid, which provides women in the Horn of Africa with easier access to political and economic decision-making positions. Seminars and workshops strengthen women’s leadership skills in conflict resolution and support women in expanding their due representation in democratic and peacebuilding institutions within the region
OP 4, 5, 6, 7
Development of a training programme by the Police Division of the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)
Development of a standardized curriculum to train police officers working in the police component of UN peacekeeping operations to prevent and combat sexual and gender-specific violence
2010 – 2011
 The Federal Government’s second implementation report of 2007: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Aussenpolitik/InternatOrgane/VereinteNationen/Schwerpunkte/Frauen-BerichtRes1325__2007.pdf
 The Federal Government’s Fourth Report on the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325, with a reporting period of August 2010 to mid-2012, will go into more detail on this development.
 46 persons are seconded and 18 are contracted, both in OSCE missions and institutions.
 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Strategy for equality between men and women for the period 2010-2015, Council document number: 13767/10, COM number: COM(2010) 491 final/13767/10 + ADD 1 and 2. A more in-depth treatment of the strategy for equality for the period 2010-2015 will be found in the Federal Government’s Fourth Implementation Report on Resolution 1325.
 The Fourth Implementation Report of the Federal Government, with a reporting period of August 2010 to mid-2013, will deal with the UN Security Council indicators on Resolution 1325 in more detail.