Text of Resolution 1991 (2011) on Congo as adopted by the Security Council

Jun 28, 2011

The Security Council,

           Recalling its previous resolutions and the statements of its President concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo,

           Reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the Democratic Republic of the Congo,

           Stressing the primary responsibility of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo for ensuring security in its territory and protecting its civilians with respect for the rule of law, human rights and international humanitarian law,

           Acknowledging that the overall peace and security situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has improved in recent years,

           Stressing that significant security challenges remain in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including the continued presence of armed groups in the Kivus and Oriental Province, serious abuses and violations of human rights and acts of violence against civilians, limited progress in building professional and accountable national security and rule of law institutions, and illegal exploitation of natural resources,

           Commending the enhanced regional cooperation in the Great Lakes region and encouraging further efforts to promote peace and stability in the region, including through existing regional mechanisms, and to intensify their efforts on regional economic development,

           Stressing that the successful holding of timely, inclusive, peaceful, credible and transparent elections, in accordance with the constitution and international standards, is a key condition for the consolidation of democracy, national reconciliation and restoration of a stable, peaceful and secure environment in which stabilization and socio-economic development can progress in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and emphasizing the need to promote participation of women in the electoral process,

           Recognizing the importance of supporting peacebuilding efforts in order to achieve further progress in the stabilization of the country, underlining the importance of economic development to ensure long-term stabilization and peace consolidation, and stressing the need for sustained international support to ensure early recovery activities and lay the foundations for sustainable development,

           Remaining greatly concerned by the humanitarian situation and the persistent high levels of violence and human rights abuses and violations against civilians, condemning in particular the targeted attacks against civilians, widespread sexual and gender-based violence, recruitment and use of children by parties to the conflict, forced displacement and extrajudicial executions, reiterating the urgent need for the swift prosecution of all perpetrators of human rights abuses and international humanitarian law violations, urging the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in cooperation with the United Nations and other relevant actors, to implement the appropriate responses to address these challenges, including in Walikale, and to provide security, medical, legal, humanitarian and other assistance to victims,

           Recalling its resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009) and 1960 (2010) on women, peace and security, its resolution 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and its resolution 1882 (2009) on children and armed conflict, and recalling the conclusions of the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict pertaining to parties in the armed conflict of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, especially in relation to the adoption of actions plans to put an end to the recruitment and use of children,

           Condemning all attacks against United Nations peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel, regardless of their perpetrators and emphasizing that those responsible for such attacks must be brought to justice,

           Recognizing the significant sacrifices made by MONUSCO, expressing appreciation for its efforts to improve peace and stability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,

           Emphasizing the importance of the continued support of the United Nations and the international community for the long-term security and development of the Democratic Republic of the Congo,

           Encouraging relevant international actors to support efforts and to assist in the restoration of basic services, especially in conflict-affected areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo,

           Calling upon the African Union and all relevant sub-regional organizations to further engage in support of the stabilization efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, notably in the fields of security and combating illicit exploitation and trade of natural resources,

           Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), dated 12 May 2011, and of its recommendations,

           Determining that the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo continues to pose a threat to international peace and security in the region,

           Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations:

           1.        Decides to extend until 30 June 2012 the mandate of MONUSCO as set out in the Resolution 1925 paragraphs 2, 11 and 12 (a) to (p) and (r) to (t), reaffirms that the protection of civilians must be given priority in decisions about the use of available capacity and resources and encourages further the use of innovative measures implemented by MONUSCO in the protection of civilians;

           2.        Reiterates that the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo bears primary responsibility for security, peacebuilding and development in the country, and encourages the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to remain fully committed to protecting the civilian population through the establishment of professional and sustainable security forces and the rule of law and respect for human rights, to promote non military solutions as an integral part of the overall solution for reducing the threat posed by Congolese and foreign armed groups and to restore full State authority in the areas freed from armed groups;

           3.        Welcomes its enhanced dialogue with the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, reiterates that the challenges the Democratic Republic of the Congo is facing as it enters a phase of stabilization and peace consolidation require a strategic partnership with the United Nations, including with MONUSCO, welcomes the constructive approach of the Congolese authorities and MONUSCO in this regard, in particular through the joint assessment process, and encourages the continuing of such assessment discussions with a view to enabling the Security Council to continue to make informed decisions regarding any reconfiguration of the Mission, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 7 of Resolution 1925 (2010);

           4.        Reiterates that future reconfigurations of MONUSCO should be determined on the basis of the evolution of the situation on the ground and on the achievement of the following objectives to be pursued by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the United Nations Mission:

           (a)      The completion of the ongoing military operations in the Kivus and Orientale Province, resulting in reducing to a minimum the threat from armed groups and restoring stability in sensitive areas;

           (b)      An improved capacity of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to effectively protect the population through the establishment of professional, accountable and sustainable security forces with a view to progressively taking over MONUSCO’s security role;

           (c)      The consolidation of State authority throughout the territory, through the deployment of Congolese civil administration, in particular the police, territorial administration and rule of law institutions in areas freed from armed groups;

           5.        Recognizes the primary responsibility of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its national partners to create propitious conditions for the forthcoming elections, urges the Government as well as all relevant parties to ensure an environment conducive to a free, fair, credible, inclusive, transparent, peaceful and timely electoral process, which includes free and constructive political debate, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, equitable access to media including State media, safety for all candidates, as well as for election observers and witnesses, journalists, human rights defenders and actors from the civil society including women, calls upon the Congolese authorities to ensure secure conditions for the conduct of and unrestricted access to the polls, including through cooperation with MONUSCO, consistent with the mission’s role with regard to the protection of civilians and calls upon all parties to respect the results of the polls;

           6.        Calls upon the Commission Electorale Nationale Indépendante (CENI), political parties and relevant Congolese authorities to swiftly adopt and implement codes of conduct and ensure timely accreditation of national and international observers;

           7.        Decides that MONUSCO shall support the organisation and conduct of national, provincial and local elections, through the provision of technical and logistical support as requested by the Congolese authorities, by facilitating enhanced and regular dialogue with the CENI including through the Election Partnership Committee, by supporting the CENI in facilitating dialogue among various Congolese stakeholders, by monitoring, reporting and following-up on human rights violations in the context of the elections, and by using the good offices of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the Democratic Republic of Congo as required;

           8.        Calls upon MONUSCO and the UN Country Team to collect information on and identify potential threats against the civilian population, as well as reliable information on violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, bring them to the attention of the Congolese authorities as appropriate, and to take appropriate action in accordance with the United Nations system wide protection strategy in harmonization with MONUSCO’s protection strategy, and further requests MONUSCO, consistent with its mandate and within its current capabilities, to provide assistance and advice to the Congolese authorities with security preparations in relation to elections;

           9.        Calls upon the international community to remain engaged in supporting the elections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and urges donors to swiftly provide equipment and financial support for the training of the Congolese National Police (PNC), with a view to enhancing Congolese efforts in this regard;

           10.      Requests MONUSCO, consistent with the authorization provided by resolution 1925 (2010), to keep a reserve force capable of redeploying rapidly in the country within its mandated strength;

           11.      Reiterates the primary responsibility of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo regarding the professionalization of its security sector and urges the Congolese authorities, with the support of MONUSCO, to develop and implement a comprehensive national security sector development strategy, in order to establish democratic, accountable and professional national security institutions, urges the Government to swiftly adopt the relevant legislation and to coordinate, with the support of MONUSCO, the efforts of the international community, including all bilateral and multilateral actors working on security sector development issues, and calls upon all Member States and international organizations to fully cooperate with the Congolese authorities in this regard;

           12.      Encourages the Government to address the underlying issue of the cohesion of the national Army, including by further developing its efforts to ensure proper integration and vetting of former armed groups, in particular the Congrès National pour la Défense du Peuple (CNDP), into the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and expresses concern at the promotion within the Congolese security forces of well-known individuals responsible for serious human rights abuses;

           13.      Demands that all armed groups, in particular Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), immediately cease all forms of violence and human rights abuses against the civilian population in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in particular against women and children, including rape and other forms of sexual abuse, and demobilize;

           14.      Takes note of the respective initiatives taken by the United Nations and the African Union to facilitate regional action against the LRA and to protect civilians, reiterates the need to enhance cooperation of all relevant parties to help address the threat to civilians posed by the LRA, welcomes the steps taken by MONUSCO to enhance information sharing and coordination with those conducting military operations against the LRA and encourages MONUSCO to continue to keep close contacts with LRA-affected communities and keep under review the deployment of its available resources to ensure maximum effect;

           15.      Acknowledges the results of the action taken to address the threat of foreign and national armed groups, particularly the progress made against the FDLR, including through the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, resettlement and reintegration (DDRRR) process, urges the international community and donors to support the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and MONUSCO in DDRRR activities, calls upon the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and neighbouring States to remain engaged in the process and urges the Government to make progress on the national programme for disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of residual Congolese armed elements in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, with the support of MONUSCO;

           16.      Encourages the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to continue to build on its cooperation with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflicts and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict and to meet, without further delay, its commitments to adopt and implement an action plan to halt the recruitment and use of children by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC), in close collaboration with MONUSCO;

           17.      Welcomes the initial steps taken by the mining authorities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and throughout the region to address the tracing and certification of minerals, encourages further demilitarization of the mining areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the professionalization and deployment of Congolese Mining Police in these areas, and calls upon MONUSCO to support the relevant Congolese authorities in preventing the provision of support to armed groups from illicit economic activities and illicit trade and natural resources, including to carry out spot checks and regular visits to mining sites, trade routes and markets, in the vicinity of the five pilot trading counters;

           18.      Urges the Congolese Government to approve the multi-year joint United Nations justice support program and to implement it, with the support of international partners, welcomes the positive steps taken by the Congolese authorities to try those responsible for human rights violations, including rape in South Kivu, encourages the Congolese authorities to promote lasting reconciliation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo by pursuing these efforts to combat impunity against all perpetrators of human rights and international humanitarian law violations, including those committed by any illegal armed groups or elements of the Congolese security forces;

           19.      Commends the Congolese Government for the apprehension and the transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda of Bernard Munyagishari, fugitive from international criminal justice, further stresses the importance of the Congolese Government actively seeking to hold accountable those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the country and of regional cooperation to this end, including through cooperation with the International Criminal Court and calls upon MONUSCO to use its existing authority to assist the Government in this regard;

           20.      Calls upon MONUSCO to continue to work with the United Nations Country Team and the Congolese authorities towards the adoption and implementation of the Peace Consolidation Programme covering provinces not affected by the conflict and to continue to support the implementation of the Government’s Stabilization and Reconstruction Plan (STAREC) including through the implementation of the International Security and Stabilization Support Strategy (ISSSS) and calls upon donors to support these efforts;

           21.      Demands that all parties cooperate fully with the operations of MONUSCO and that they ensure the security of as well as unhindered and immediate access for United Nations and associated personnel in carrying out their mandate, throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and requests the Secretary-General to report without delay any failure to comply with these demands;

           22.      Commends the contribution of troop- and police-contributing countries and donors to MONUSCO and calls on Member States to pledge and provide the remaining force enablers required for the mission;

           23.      Requests the Secretary-General to report in October 2011, in January 2012 and by the 23 May 2012 on the progress on the ground, further requests the Secretary-General to regularly brief and inform it on the significant events of the electoral process, including on MONUSCO’s support to this process, and to provide a comprehensive assessment of the political, security, humanitarian and human rights environment following the elections, and requests the Secretary-General to provide in these reports an indication of progress towards achieving a coordinated United Nations approach in-country, and in particular on critical gaps to achieving peacebuilding objectives alongside the mission;

           24.      Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

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